PBS Space Time
PBS Space Time
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Space Time explores the outer reaches of space, the craziness of astrophysics, the possibilities of sci-fi, and anything else you can think of beyond Planet Earth with our astrophysicist host: Matthew O’Dowd.
Episodes released every Wednesday afternoon!
Matt O'Dowd spends his time studying the universe, especially really far-away things like quasars, super-massive black holes, and evolving galaxies. He uses telescopes in space to do it. Matt completed his Ph.D. at NASA's Space Telescope Science Institute, followed by work at the University of Melbourne and Columbia University. He's now a professor at the City University of New York's Lehman College and an Associate at the American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium.
Previous host Gabe Perez-Giz is an astrophysicist who studies black hole physics. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University and also hosted PBS Infinite Series.

Video
The Truth About Beauty in Physics
The Truth About Beauty in Physics
13 days ago
The great physicist Hermann Weyl once said: "My work always tried to unite the true with the beautiful, but when I had to choose one or the other, I usually chose the beautiful." But is this actually good advice for doing physics? Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Setare Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to All our Supporters on Patreon! Big Bang Supporters Scott Gray James Younger Robert Doxtator Ahmad Jodeh Caed Aldwych Radu Negulescu Alexander Tamas Morgan Hough Juan Benet Fabrice Eap Mark Rosenthal David Nicklas Quasar Supporters Alec S-L Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco william bryan Hypernova Supporters Mark Matthew Bosko Justin Jermyn Jason Finn Anton Kochkov Julian Tyacke Syed Ansar John R. Slavik Mathew Danton Spivey Donal Botkin John Pollock Edmund Fokschaner Joseph Salomone Matthew O'Connor chuck zegar Jordan Young Hank S John Hofmann Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters Richard Deighton Lucas Morgan Eric Webster David Johnston J. King Michael Barton Christopher Barron James Ramsey Mr T Andrew Mann Jeremiah Johnson fieldsa eleanory Cody Lubinsky Peter Mertz Kevin O'Connell Bryan Dawley Isaac Suttell Devon Rosenthal Oliver Flanagan Bleys Goodson Darryl J Lyle Robert Walter Bruce B Ismael Montecel M D Andrew Richmond Simon Oliphant Mirik Gogri David Hughes Mark Daniel Cohen Brandon Lattin Yannick Weyns Nickolas Andrew Freeman Brian Blanchard Shane Calimlim Tybie Fitzhugh Robert Ilardi Eric Kiebler Tatiana Vorovchenko Craig Stonaha Michael Conroy Graydon Goss Frederic Simon Greg Smith Sean Warniaha Tonyface John Robinson A G Kevin Lee Adrian Hatch Yurii Konovaliuk John Funai Cass Costello Geoffrey Short Bradley Jenkins Kyle Hofer Tim Stephani Luaan AlecZero Malte Ubl Aria Ahmad Nick Virtue Scott Gossett David Bethala Dan Warren Patrick Sutton John Griffith Daniel Lyons Josh Thomas DFaulk Kevin Warne Andreas Nautsch Brandon labonte
How Do We Know What Stars Are Made Of?
How Do We Know What Stars Are Made Of?
24 days ago
Thank you to Target for supporting PBS. You can learn more at target.com/community Share your story today: to.pbs.org/3izZeXh Pin-pricks in the celestial sphere, through which shines the light of heaven? Or gods and heroes looking down from their constellations? Or lights kindled above middle earth by Varda Elbereth and brightened with the dew of the trees of Valinor? Science has long pondered the mysteries of the stars. This is how we finally figured them out. Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/space… Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Setare Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to All our Supporters on Patreon! Big Bang Supporters Robert Doxtator Ahmad Jodeh Caed Aldwych Radu Negulescu Alexander Tamas Morgan Hough Juan Benet Fabrice Eap Mark Rosenthal David Nicklas Quasar Supporters Alec S-L Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova william bryan Drew Hart Justin Jermyn Jason Finn Антон Кочков Julian Tyacke Syed Ansar John R. Slavik Mathew Danton Spivey Donal Botkin John Pollock Edmund Fokschaner Joseph Salomone Hank S Matthew O'Connor chuck zegar Jordan Young John Hofmann Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Michael Barton Christopher Barron James Ramsey Mr T Andrew Mann Jeremiah Johnson fieldsa eleanory Cody Lubinsky Peter Mertz Kevin O'Connell Bryan Dawley Richard Deighton Isaac Suttell Devon Rosenthal Oliver Flanagan Dawn M Fink Bleys Goodson Darryl J Lyle Robert Walter jechamt Bruce B Ismael Montecel M D Mark Daniel Cohen Andrew Richmond Simon Oliphant Mirik Gogri David Hughes Aria Ahmad Brandon Lattin Yannick Weyns Nickolas Andrew Freeman Protius Protius Brian Blanchard Shane Calimlim Tybie Fitzhugh Patrick Sutton Robert Ilardi Eric Kiebler Tatiana Vorovchenko Craig Stonaha Michael Conroy Graydon Goss Frederic Simon Greg Smith Sean Warniaha Tonyface John Robinson A G Kevin Lee Adrian Hatch Yurii Konovaliuk John Funai Cass Costello Geoffrey Short Bradley Jenkins Kyle Hofer Tim Stephani Luaan AlecZero Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Scott Gossett David Bethala Dan Warren John Griffith Daniel Lyons Josh Thomas DFaulk Kevin Warne Andreas Nautsch Brandon labonte Lucas Morgan
Can Future Colliders Break the Standard Model?
Can Future Colliders Break the Standard Model?
27 days ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/space… If you wanna make an omelet you gotta break a few eggs. And by omelet I mean a theory of everything, and by eggs I mean a billion billion subatomic particles obliterated in the next generation of giant particle colliders. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Dan Garisto & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber In June, the consortium of Europe’s top particle physicists published their vision for the next several years of particle physics experiments in the EU. A big part of that is the Future Circular Collider, which, if it happens, will accelerate particles in a 100 kilometer circumference underground ring encircling Geneva. It’ll be nearly 4 times the size of the Large Hadron Collider, and it would be capable of colliding particle beams with 8 times the current LHC energy. The hope is that this will open the window to brand new physics - and perhaps break the current deadlock in our quest for a theory of everything. But do the FCC or other upcoming collider experiments really have a chance of succeeding? Today we’re going to discuss the incredibly ambitious plans for future colliders, and try to honestly evaluate their prospects. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Robert Doxtator Ahmad Jodeh Caed Aldwych Radu Negulescu Alexander Tamas Morgan Hough Juan Benet Fabrice Eap Mark Rosenthal David Nicklas Quasar Supporters Alec S-L Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Lucas Morgan Hypernova Supporters william bryan Drew Hart Justin Jermyn Jason Finn Антон Кочков Julian Tyacke Timothy McCulloch Syed Ansar John R. Slavik Mathew Danton Spivey Donal Botkin John Pollock Edmund Fokschaner Joseph Salomone Hank S Matthew O'Connor chuck zegar Jordan Young John Hofmann Gamma Ray Burst Supporters Michael Barton Christopher Barron James Ramsey Mr T Andrew Mann Jeremiah Johnson fieldsa eleanory Cody Lubinsky Peter Mertz Kevin O'Connell Bryan Dawley Richard Deighton Isaac Suttell Devon Rosenthal Oliver Flanagan Dawn M Fink Bleys Goodson Darryl J Lyle Robert Walter jechamt Bruce B Ismael Montecel M D Mark Daniel Cohen Andrew Richmond Simon Oliphant Mirik Gogri David Hughes Aria Ahmad Brandon Lattin Yannick Weyns Nickolas Andrew Freeman Protius Protius Brian Blanchard Shane Calimlim Tybie Fitzhugh Patrick Sutton Robert Ilardi Eric Kiebler Tatiana Vorovchenko Craig Stonaha Michael Conroy Graydon Goss Frederic Simon Greg Smith Sean Warniaha Tonyface John Robinson A G Kevin Lee Adrian Hatch Yurii Konovaliuk John Funai Cass Costello Geoffrey Short Bradley Jenkins Kyle Hofer Tim Stephani Luaan AlecZero Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Scott Gossett David Bethala Dan Warren John Griffith Daniel Lyons Josh Thomas DFaulk Kevin Warne Andreas Nautsch Brandon labonte
How Stars Destroy Each Other
How Stars Destroy Each Other
Month ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/space… Our galaxy is full of dysfunctional stellar relationships. With more than half of all stars existing in binary orbits, it’s inevitable that many stellar remnants will end up in parasitic spirals with their partners. Today we’re going to look at the worst of these - from the novae produced by white dwarfs, to X-ray binaries created by neutron stars and black holes - and much weirder things besides. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to our Patrons! Big Bang Supporters Robert Doxtator Ahmad Jodeh Caed Aldwych Radu Negulescu Alexander Tamas Morgan Hough Juan Benet Fabrice Eap Mark Rosenthal David Nicklas Quasar Supporters Alec S-L Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters william bryan Drew Hart Justin Jermyn Jason Finn Антон Кочков Julian Tyacke Timothy McCulloch Syed Ansar John R. Slavik Mathew Danton Spivey Donal Botkin John Pollock Edmund Fokschaner Joseph Salomone Hank S Matthew O'Connor chuck zegar Jordan Young John Hofmann Gamma Ray Burst Supporters Michael Barton Christopher Barron James Ramsey Mr T Andrew Mann Jeremiah Johnson fieldsa eleanory Cody Lubinsky Peter Mertz Kevin O'Connell Bryan Dawley Richard Deighton Isaac Suttell Devon Rosenthal Oliver Flanagan Dawn M Fink Bleys Goodson Darryl J Lyle Robert Walter jechamt Bruce B Ismael Montecel M D Mark Daniel Cohen Andrew Richmond Simon Oliphant Mirik Gogri David Hughes Aria Ahmad Brandon Lattin Yannick Weyns Nickolas Andrew Freeman Protius Protius Brian Blanchard Shane Calimlim Tybie Fitzhugh Patrick Sutton Robert Ilardi Eric Kiebler Tatiana Vorovchenko Craig Stonaha Michael Conroy Graydon Goss Frederic Simon Greg Smith Sean Warniaha Tonyface John Robinson A G Kevin Lee Adrian Hatch Yurii Konovaliuk John Funai Cass Costello Geoffrey Short Bradley Jenkins Kyle Hofer Tim Stephani Luaan AlecZero Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Scott Gossett David Bethala Dan Warren John Griffith Daniel Lyons Josh Thomas DFaulk Kevin Warne Andreas Nautsch Brandon Labonte
Theory of Everything Controversies: Livestream
Theory of Everything Controversies: Livestream
Month ago
The second in our two event series about Theories of Everything! Watch the first one: usa-video.net/_izocEgArtQ-video.html Please subscribe to Brian Keating's USa-video Channel to watch one-on-one interviews with the guest speakers and more: usa-video.net/u/DrBrianKeating Existing Theories of Everything have not yet produced experimental evidence that solves the fundamental challenges facing physics. That lack of progress has opened up a sea of controversy, from disagreements about the very necessity of TOEs, to questioning the cost/benefit of mega-billion dollar particle accelerators in search of them, to the emergence of competing TOEs from physicists outside of the academic community. In this 90 minute chat we dive into the existential questions around TOEs. Special thanks to Brian Keating, Lee Smolin, Sabine Hossenfelder, and Eric Weinstein for helping us create this great event. Our Guests' Work: Sabine Hossenfelder USa-video Channel: usa-video.net/u/SabineHossenfelder Lost in Math: How Beauty Led Physics Astray: www.basicbooks.com/titles/sabine-hossenfelder/lost-in-math/9781541646766/ Eric Weinstein The Portal Podcast: ericweinstein.org/ The Portal Wiki: projects.theportal.wiki/ Lee Smolin Einstein's Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum www.amazon.com/Einsteins-Unfinished-Revolution-Search-Quantum/dp/1594206198/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=lee+smolin&qid=1597087375&s=books&sr=1-1 Time Reborn: From the Crisis in Physics to the Future of the Universe www.amazon.com/Time-Reborn-Lee-Smolin/dp/0544245598/ref=sr_1_2?dchild=1&keywords=lee+smolin&qid=1597087375&s=books&sr=1-2 Three Roads to Quantum Gravity www.amazon.com/gp/product/0465094546/ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_hsch_vapi_tpbk_p1_i3 The Trouble With Physics: The Rise of String Theory, The Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next www.amazon.com/gp/product/061891868X/ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_hsch_vapi_tpbk_p1_i2 The Life of the Cosmos www.amazon.com/gp/product/0195126645/ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_hsch_vapi_tpbk_p1_i4
What is a Theory of Everything: Livestream
What is a Theory of Everything: Livestream
Month ago
Join two epic livestreams about Theories of Everything! Sign up for prizes, a download link to the videos, and more at www.pbsspacetime.com/events. Please subscribe to Brian Keating's USa-video Channel to watch one-on-one interviews with the guest speakers and more: usa-video.net/u/DrBrianKeating July 28 @ 4pm Eastern (8pm UTC) - What is a Theory of Everything? Moderated by Matt O'Dowd & Brian Keating ​Featuring Max Tegmark, Stephon Alexander, James Beacham In this 90 minute conversation we explore what Theories of Everything really are outside the hype, dig into the essential physics mysteries that compel us to search for one, and survey the major TOE contenders currently being explored by the physics community. August 4 @ 10:30am Eastern (2:30pm UTC) - Theory of Everything Controversies Moderated by Matt O'Dowd & Brian Keating ​Featuring Lee Smolin, Eric Weinstein, Sabine Hossenfelder Existing Theories of Everything have not yet produced experimental evidence that solves the fundamental challenges facing physics. That lack of progress has opened up a sea of controversy, from disagreements about the very necessity of TOEs, to questioning the cost/benefit of mega-billion dollar particle accelerators in search of them, to the emergence of competing TOEs from physicists outside of the academic community. In this 90 minute chat we dive into the existential questions around TOEs.
Theory of Everything Livestreams with Amazing Guests
Theory of Everything Livestreams with Amazing Guests
Month ago
Join two epic livestreams about Theories of Everything! Sign up for prizes, a download link to the videos, and more at www.pbsspacetime.com/events. Check out our co-moderator Brian Keating's incredible channel at: usa-video.net/u/DrBrianKeating July 28 @ 4pm Eastern (8pm UTC) - What is a Theory of Everything? Moderated by Matt O'Dowd & Brian Keating ​Featuring Max Tegmark, Stephon Alexander, James Beacham, Lisa Randall In this 90 minute conversation we explore what Theories of Everything really are outside the hype, dig into the essential physics mysteries that compel us to search for one, and survey the major TOE contenders currently being explored by the physics community. August 4 @ 10:30am Eastern (2:30pm UTC) - Theory of Everything Controversies Moderated by Matt O'Dowd & Brian Keating ​Featuring Lee Smolin, Eric Weinstein, Sabine Hossenfelder Existing Theories of Everything have not yet produced experimental evidence that solves the fundamental challenges facing physics. That lack of progress has opened up a sea of controversy, from disagreements about the very necessity of TOEs, to questioning the cost/benefit of mega-billion dollar particle accelerators in search of them, to the emergence of competing TOEs from physicists outside of the academic community. In this 90 minute chat we dive into the existential questions around TOEs.
The Boundary Between Black Holes & Neutron Stars
The Boundary Between Black Holes & Neutron Stars
2 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime When we detected the very first gravitational wave, a new window was opened to the mysteries of the universe. We knew we’d see things previously thought impossible. And we just did - an object on the boundary between neutron stars and black holes, which promises to reveal the secrets of both. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Previous Episodes Referenced: Ligo’s First Detection of Gravitational Waves: usa-video.net/gw-i_VKd6Wo-video.html The Future of Gravitational Waves: usa-video.net/eJ2RNBAFLj0-video.html How to build a black hole usa-video.net/xx4562gesw0-video.html&vl=en Strange Stars - usa-video.net/u4RNGRyzt10-video.html Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Robert Doxtator Ahmad Jodeh Caed Aldwych Radu Negulescu Alexander Tamas Morgan Hough Juan Benet Fabrice Eap David Nicklas Quasar Supporters Alec S-L Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters william bryan Julian Tyacke Syed Ansar John R. Slavik Mathew Danton Spivey Donal Botkin John Pollock Edmund Fokschaner Joseph Salomone Hank S Matthew O'Connor chuck zegar Jordan Young John Hofmann Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters fieldsa eleanory Cody Lubinsky Peter Mertz Elliot Azizollahi Kevin O'Connell Bryan Dawley Richard Deighton Isaac Suttell Devon Rosenthal Oliver Flanagan Mikhail Klakotskiy Dawn M Fink Bleys Goodson Darryl J Lyle Robert Walter jechamt Bruce B Ismael Montecel M D Mark Daniel Cohen Andrew Richmond Simon Oliphant Mirik Gogri David Hughes Aria Ahmad Brandon Lattin Yannick Weyns Nickolas Andrew Freeman Protius Protius Brian Blanchard Shane Calimlim Tybie Fitzhugh Patrick Sutton Robert Ilardi Eric Kiebler Tatiana Vorovchenko Craig Stonaha Michael Conroy Graydon Goss Frederic Simon Greg Smith Sean Warniaha Tonyface John Robinson A G Kevin Lee Nick Wright Adrian Hatch Paul Rose Yurii Konovaliuk John Funai Cass Costello Geoffrey Short Bradley Jenkins Kyle Hofer Tim Stephani Luaan AlecZero Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Scott Gossett David Bethala Dan Warren John Griffith Daniel Lyons Josh Thomas DFaulk Kevin Warne Andreas Nautsch Brandon labonte
Does Antimatter Explain Why There's Something Rather Than Nothing?
Does Antimatter Explain Why There's Something Rather Than Nothing?
2 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/space… The most precious substance in our universe is not gold, nor oil. It’s not even printer ink. It’s antimatter. But it’s worth every penny of it’s very high cost, because it may hold the answer to the question of why anything exists in our universe at all. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Katie McCormick & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Ahmad Jodeh Alexander Tamas Caed Aldwych David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Robert Doxtator Quasar Supporters Alec S-L Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters william bryan chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Andrew Richmond Bleys Goodson Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Bruce B Bryan Dawley Cass Costello Cody Lubinsky Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons Darryl J Lyle David Bethala David Hughes Dawn M Fink Devon Rosenthal DFaulk Elliot Azizollahi Eric Kiebler fieldsa eleanory Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith Isaac Suttell Ismael Montecel jechamt John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin O'Connell Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Luaan M D Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Michael Conroy Mikhail Klakotskiy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Oliver Flanagan Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Peter Mertz Protius Protius Rainwalker Winterpainter Richard Deighton Robert Ilardi Robert Walter Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Simon Oliphant Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
Dissolving an Event Horizon
Dissolving an Event Horizon
2 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Black hole singularities break physics - fortunately, the universe seems to conspire to protect itself from their causality-destroying madness. At least, so says the cosmic censorship hypothesis. Only problem is many physicists think it might be wrong, and that naked singularities may exist after all. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to our Patrons! Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas Caed Aldwych David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Carson Kahn Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters william bryan chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Andrew Richmond Bleys Goodson Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Bruce B Cass Costello Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons Darryl J Lyle David Bethala David Hughes Dawn M Fink Devon Rosenthal DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith Isaac Suttell Ismael Montecel jechamt John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Luaan M D Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Michael Conroy Mikhail Klakotskiy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Oliver Flanagan Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Rainwalker Winterpainter Richard Deighton Robert Ilardi Robert Walter Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Simon Oliphant Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
Building Black Holes in a Lab
Building Black Holes in a Lab
3 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Black holes are about the worst subjects for direct study in the universe. But at this stage, it’s all we can do to convince ourselves of their existence. Actually studying the physics of real black holes is much, much harder. I mean, we could try to make one - but that’s way beyond our current tech level, and also potentially humanity-destroying. Well it turns out we don’t need to make real black holes to at least get started with the lab work. We can instead study analog black holes - and by analog, I don’t mean old fashioned clockwork black holes - I mean analogies. Physical systems that aren’t black holes but that behave in similar ways - and may reveal the real behaviours of real black holes. Matt Visser Paper arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9712010 Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Daniel Garisto & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber #space #astrophysics #blackholes Previous Episodes Referenced: Unruh Radiation usa-video.net/7cj6oiFDEXc-video.html Hawking Radiation: usa-video.net/qPKj0YnKANw-video.html&vl=en How Black Hole Spin Space Time usa-video.net/UjgGdGzDFiM-video.html What’s On the Other Side of a Black Hole: usa-video.net/T4oYvSH6jJ8-video.html Special Thanks to All our Big Bang Sponsors! Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas Caed Aldwych David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Carson Kahn Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch William Bryan Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Andrew Richmond Bleys Goodson Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Bruce B Cass Costello Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons Darryl J Lyle David Bethala David Hughes Dawn M Fink Devon Rosenthal DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith Isaac Suttell Ismael Montecel jechamt John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Luaan M D Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Michael Conroy Mikhail Klakotskiy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Oliver Flanagan Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Rainwalker Winterpainter Richard Deighton Robert Ilardi Robert Walter Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Simon Oliphant Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
What Happens After the Universe Ends?
What Happens After the Universe Ends?
3 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Conformal Cyclic Cosmology is a story of the origin and the end of our universe from great mathematical physicist Sir Roger Penrose. It’s goes like this: the infinitely far future, when the universe has expanded exponentially to to an unthinkably large size, and every black hole and particle has decayed into faint radiation .... that infinite stretch of space and time is identically the SAME THING as the infinitesimal and instantaneous big bang of a new universe, and our universe is just one in an endless chain. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber #space #astrophysics #universe Previous Episodes Discussed Geometry of Causality - usa-video.net/1YFrISfN7jo-video.html Higgs Mechanism - usa-video.net/kixAljyfdqU-video.html Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas Caed Aldwych David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Carson Kahn Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters william bryan chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Andrew Richmond Bleys Goodson Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Bruce B Cass Costello Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons Darryl J Lyle David Bethala David Hughes Dawn M Fink Devon Rosenthal DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith Isaac Suttell Ismael Montecel jechamt John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer M D Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Michael Conroy Mikhail Klakotskiy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Oliver Flanagan Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Rainwalker Winterpainter Richard Deighton Robert Ilardi Robert Walter Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Simon Oliphant Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
Can Viruses Travel Between Planets?
Can Viruses Travel Between Planets?
3 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime With the global pandemic of Covid 19 still encompassing the world, we are generally not big fans of viruses right now. But we sure are thinking about them a lot. That’s right, even astrophysicists are pondering these bizarre little critters. In fact, astrovirology, although very new, is actually an emerging subfield of astrobiology. And that’s because it turns out viruses don’t just influence organisms - they’re incredibly important on a planetary scale. Perhaps an interplanetary scale. Virology Links: Dr. Vincent Racaniello's Columbia University virology course: usa-video.net/pl/PLGhmZX2NKiNldpyRUBBEzNoWL0Cso1jip PBS Eons Where do Viruses Come From? usa-video.net/X31g5TB-MRo-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Katie McCormick & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber #space #astrophysics #astrovirology Special Thanks to our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova william bryan chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Andrew Richmond Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Cass Costello Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala David Hughes DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith Jennifer Crosley John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Michael Conroy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Simon Oliphant Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
Does Gravity Require Extra Dimensions?
Does Gravity Require Extra Dimensions?
3 months ago
It’s been 120 years since Henry Cavendish measured the gravitational constant with a pair of lead balls suspended by a wire. The fundamental nature of gravity still eludes our best minds - but those secrets may be revealed by turning back to the Cavendish experiment. That steampunk contraption may even reveal the existence of extra dimensions of space. Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Katie McCormick & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber #space #astrophysics #gravity Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters William Bryan Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Andrew Richmond Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Cass Costello Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala David Hughes DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith Jennifer Crosley John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Michael Conroy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Simon Oliphant Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
Mapping the Multiverse
Mapping the Multiverse
4 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime This is a map of the multiverse. Or in physics-ese, it’s the maximally extended Penrose diagram of a Kerr spacetime. And in english: when you solve Einstein’s equations of general relativity for a rotating black hole, the universe does not come to an abrupt halt at the bottom of the gravitational pit. Instead, a path can be traced out again but you do not end up in the universe that you started in. Like I said, it’s a map of the multiverse. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber #space #astrophysics #multiverse Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters william bryan chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Andrew Richmond Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Cass Costello Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala David Hughes DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith Jennifer Crosley John Funai John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Michael Conroy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Oliver & Kiersten Thamm Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Simon Oliphant Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
How Luminiferous Aether Led to Relativity
How Luminiferous Aether Led to Relativity
4 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime As the 19th century came to a close, physicists were feeling pretty satisfied with the state of their science. The great edifice of physical theory seemed complete. A few minor experiments remained to verify everything. Little did those physicists know that one of those experiments would bring the entire structure crashing down paving the way for the physics revolution of the 20th century. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Sarah Wells & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber #space #astrophysics #sciencehistory A Special Note from writer Sarah Wells: Sarah Wells would like to dedicate the writing and inspiration for this episode to Louis Colonna-Romano, a Clark University physics instructor who told the story of Albert Michelson's fantastic "failure" to generations of physics freshmen. Lou's kind mentorship and infectious enthusiasm for physics inspired every student who came into his office, including this video's writer. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters! Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Matthew Ryan Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch william bryan Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Andrew Richmond Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala David Hughes DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith Jennifer Crosley John Funai John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Michael Conroy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Oliver & Kiersten Thamm Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Simon Oliphant Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
How We Know The Universe is Ancient
How We Know The Universe is Ancient
4 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime The universe is precisely 13.8 billion year old - or so our best scientific methods tell us. But how do you learn the age of the universe when there’s no trace left of its beginnings? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Dan Falk & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber #space #astrophysics #cosmology Special Thanks to our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Matthew Ryan Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch william bryan Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala David Hughes DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith Jennifer Crosley John Funai John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Michael Conroy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Simon Oliphant Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk Kiersten Thamm
Space Time Livestream: Ask Matt Anything
Space Time Livestream: Ask Matt Anything
4 months ago
In today's livestream you'll be able to Ask Matt O'Dowd, a PhD in astrophysics, anything. Tune in to ask your own question or see some of the great questions our audience has for Matt! #space #astrophysics #astronomy
Will Wormholes Allow Fast Interstellar Travel?
Will Wormholes Allow Fast Interstellar Travel?
5 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime From Stargate to Interstellar, wormholes are our favorite method for traveling across fictional universes. But they are also a very serious field of study for some of our greatest minds over the last century. So what’s the holdup? When do we get to wormhole ourselves out of here? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Camera Operator: Bahaar Gholipour Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber #space #astrophysics #interstellar Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters! Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch william bryan Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala David Hughes DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Matthew Ryan Michael Conroy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
Was the Milky Way a Quasar?
Was the Milky Way a Quasar?
5 months ago
Check out Antarctic Extremes on PBS Terra: usa-video.net/u/pbsterra Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ The Milky Way galaxy is relatively calm by the destructive standards of the rest of the Universe, and compared to its own very violent past. But just recently we discovered that its violent past was much more recent than we thought - and could even happen again. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Emily Diebert & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber #space #astrophysics #spacetime Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Matthew Ryan Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters william bryan A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Arefa Ahmad Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala David Hughes DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Robinson Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Daniel Cohen Michael Conroy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Randall Sylvia Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
How We Know The Earth Is Ancient
How We Know The Earth Is Ancient
5 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ In astronomy we talk about billions of years like it’s no big deal. But how can we be sure about timescales so far beyond the capacity for human intuition? Our discovery of what we now call deep time is very recent - as recent as our discovery of the true spatial vastness of our universe. And it came as scientists tried to measure the age of the Earth. What they found was as shocking and humbling as anything seen through the telescope. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Dan Falk & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters! Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova william bryan chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Matthew Ryan Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala David Hughes DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Robinson Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Mirik Gogri Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Randall Sylvia Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
What’s On The Other Side Of A Black Hole?
What’s On The Other Side Of A Black Hole?
5 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Normal maps are useless inside black holes. At the event horizon - the ultimate point of no return as you approach a black hole - time and space themselves change their character. We need new coordinate systems to trace paths into the black hole interior. But the maps we draw using those coordinates reveal something unexpected - they don’t simply end inside the black hole, but continue beyond. In these maps, black holes become wormholes, and new universes lie on the other side. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to our Patreon Sponsors Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Mathew Matthew O'Connor Matthew Ryan Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Arefa Ahmad Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Robinson Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Randall Sylvia Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
How Black Holes Spin Space Time
How Black Holes Spin Space Time
6 months ago
Thank you to World of Warships for supporting PBS, go to: go.thoughtleaders.io/1691420200309 and use the code: BATTLESTATIONS2020 to let them know we sent you. Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ If there’s one thing cooler than a black hole it’s a rotating black hole. Why? Because we can use them as futuristic power generators, galactic-scale bombs, and portals to other universes. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Black holes are self-sustaining holes in the fabric of spacetime. Space at the event horizon cascades downwards, dragging more space behind it, sort of like how water drags itself near the edge of a waterfall. In a Kerr black hole, space above the event horizon is dragged around in a circle - so less waterfall and more whirlpool. Water spiraling down a drain in a flat sink doesn’t know about the hole - it only knows about the motion of the water around it. In fact it’s possible to construct a black hole in general relativity rotating or otherwise - without any mass. Warp spacetime so it looks like the exterior of a black hole, and that warping will persist. So what is rotating? Spacetime is rotating. Special Thanks to our Patreon Sponsors BIg Bang Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Matthew Ryan Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Arefa Ahmad Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Robinson Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Randall Sylvia Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
How Do Quantum States Manifest In The Classical World?
How Do Quantum States Manifest In The Classical World?
6 months ago
Thank you for The Great Courses Plus for supporting PBS. To learn more click ow.ly/oSus30qpmwX Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ This episode of space time is brought to you by the information flowing through an impossibly complex network of quantum entanglement, that just happens to mutually agree that you and I exist inside it. Oh, and Schrodinger’s cat is in here too. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber In quantum world things are routinely in multiple states at once - what we call a “superposition” of states. But in the classical world of large scales, things are either this or that. The famous thought experiment is Schrodinger’s cat - in which a cat is in an opaque box with a vial of deadly poison that’s released on the radioactive decay of an atom. Quantum mechanics tells us that the atom’s wavefunction can be in a superposition of states - simultaneously decayed or not decayed. So is the cat’s wavefunction also in a superposition of both dead and alive. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Sponsors Big Bang Sponsors Alexander Tamas David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Radu Negulescu Quasar Sponsors Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hyper Nova Sponsors Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Matthew Ryan Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Sponsors A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Arefa Ahmad Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brandon Lattin Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Randall Sylvia Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yannick Weyns Yurii Konovaliuk
Does Quantum Immortality Save Schrödinger's Cat?
Does Quantum Immortality Save Schrödinger's Cat?
6 months ago
Check out Antarctic Extremes on PBS Terra: usa-video.net/EvRAuy1ZmTc-video.html Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ To quote eminent scientist Tyler Durden: "On a long enough timeline, the survival rate for everyone drops to zero." Actually… not necessarily true. If the quantum multiverse is real there may be a version of you that lives forever. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber If we can’t ever peer into these other realities that are used to explain quantum mechanics, how do we know they exist? In order to understand what happens to those different branches, and to understand why we find ourselves in one of them, we need to embrace one of the interpretations of quantum mechanics. For example the Copenhagen interpretation, which says that the wavefunction branches that we don’t observe somehow vanish at the moment of measurement. Or the Many Worlds interpretation, which states that those other branches are just as valid as ours - implying that reality may split and multiply in all possible ways. In that case we only see one branch because we live in that branch, and the others are rendered inaccessible by decoherence. But today I’m going to offer a test. Admittedly NOT a very useful one - but one that’s fun to think about. We’ll call this test quantum immortality. It’s based on the famous Schrodinger’s cat thought experiment. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Sponsors Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporter Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Douglas Cantrell Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Arefa Ahmad Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Randall Sylvia Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk
How Decoherence Splits The Quantum Multiverse
How Decoherence Splits The Quantum Multiverse
7 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Why is it that we can see these multiple histories play out on the quantum scale, and why do lose sight of them on our macroscopic scale? Many physicists believe that the answer lies in a process known as quantum decoherence. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer, Yago Ballarini, & Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Does conscious observation of a quantum system cause the wavefunction to collapse? The upshot is that more and more physicists think that consciousness - and even measurement - doesn’t directly cause wavefunction collapse. In fact probably there IS no clear Heisenberg cut. The collapse itself may be an illusion, and the alternate histories that the wavefunction represents may continue forever. The question then becomes: why is it that we can see these multiple histories play out on the quantum scale, and why do lose sight of them on our macroscopic scale? Many physicists believe that the answer lies in a process known as quantum decoherence. Thanks to our Patreon Supporters! Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporter Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Justin Waters Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia #space #quantummechanics #astrophysics
Does Consciousness Influence Quantum Mechanics?
Does Consciousness Influence Quantum Mechanics?
7 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ It’s not surprising that the profound weirdness of the quantum world has inspired some outlandish explanations - nor that these have strayed into the realm of what we might call mysticism. One particularly pervasive notion is the idea that consciousness can directly influence quantum systems - and so influence reality. Today we’re going to see where this idea comes from, and whether quantum theory really supports it. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Post Production: Yago Ballarini, Max Willians, Pedro Osinski Directed by: Eric Brown and Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber The behavior of the quantum world is beyond weird. Objects being in multiple places at once, communicating faster than light, or simultaneously experiencing multiple entire timelines ... that then talk to each other. The rules governing the tiny quantum world of atoms and photons seem alien. And yet we have a set of rules that give us incredible power in predicting the behavior of quantum system - rules encapsulated in the mathematics of quantum mechanics. Despite its stunning success, we’re now nearly a century past the foundation of quantum mechanics and physicists are still debating how to interpret its equations and the weirdness they represent. Thanks to our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporter Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia
Are Axions Dark Matter?
Are Axions Dark Matter?
7 months ago
For more information go to: nordvpn.com/spacetime and use the code: spacetime Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ What does the strong nuclear force, the fundamental symmetries of nature, and a laundry detergent have in common? They’re all important parts of the tale of the axion - a tale whose end may take us beyond the standard model and solve one of the most vexing mysteries in astrophysics. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd & Graeme Gossel Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Post Production: Yago Ballarini, Max Willians, Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber The story of the axion is a classic physics tale: intrepid scientists delve deep into trackless mathematics in search of answers to a mystery. And there, against all expectations, they find the hint of a completely new and unexpected denizen of the natural world. In this case the mystery was a subtle inconsistency in the behavior of the fundamental forces. And the unexpected discovery? A brand new particle - the axion - which, while not proven to exist, may explain a much more famous conundrum. The axion may explain dark matter. Special Thanks to Our Patreons Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss John Funai John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia
Are there Infinite Versions of You?
Are there Infinite Versions of You?
7 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ If the universe goes on forever, does that mean there are infinite versions of you out there? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Post Production: Yago Ballarini, Max Willians, Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber The cosmological equations that so beautifully describe our universe make an uncomfortable prediction: interpreting them in the most straightforward way, they tell us that the universe may be infinite. Or not; it could turn out that the universe contains enough matter and energy to close in on itself and be finite, or perhaps the simplest interpretation of the cosmological equations is TOO simple. But according to our best theoretical understanding, an infinite universe seems at least possible - and some would say likely. If so this raises an even more crazy possibility. An infinite universe may literally contain every possible thing allowable by the laws of physics - each in infinite multitude. And that includes infinite versions of you. Today I’m going to try to convince THIS version of the reality of all of the others. Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia
Hacking the Nature of Reality
Hacking the Nature of Reality
7 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ In particle physics we try to understand reality by looking for smaller and smaller building blocks. But what if that has been the wrong philosophy all along? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd & Graeme Gossel Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Post Production: Yago Ballarini, Max Willians, Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber In standard use, the S-matrix can be calculated if you understand the forces in the interaction region - for example, in the nucleus of an atom. But what if you don’t know those internal interaction forces? Heisenberg sought a way to ignore that internal structure and, rather, treat the S-matrix as fundamental. The S-matrix was to become the physics of the interaction, rather than an emergent property of more fundamental, internal physics. Heisenberg’s made some progress in the 40s, but the approach came into its own 20 years later when the atomic nucleus refused to give up its mysteries. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia
Solving the Three Body Problem
Solving the Three Body Problem
8 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ The three body problem is famous for being impossible to solve. But actually it's been solved many times, and in ingenious ways. Some of those solutions are incredibly useful, and some are incredibly bizarre. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Post Production: Yago Ballarini, Max Willians, Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Physics - and arguably all of science changed forever in 1687 when Isaac Newton published his Principia. Within it were equations of motion and gravity that transformed our erratic-seeming cosmos into a perfectly tuned machine of clockwork predictability. Given the current positions and velocities of the bodies of the solar system, Newton’s equations could be used in principle be used to calculate their locations at any distant time, future or past. I say “in principle” because the reality isn’t so simple. Despite the beauty of Newton’s equations, they lead to a simple solution for planetary motion in only one case - when two and only two bodies orbit each other sans any other gravitational influence in the universe. Add just one more body and in most cases all motion becomes fundamentally chaotic - there exists no simple solution. This is the three-body problem, and we’ve been trying to solve it for over 300 years. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters: Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Hypernova Supporters: A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Randall Sylvia Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk
How To Capture Black Holes
How To Capture Black Holes
8 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Black holes are awesome - but how about black holes being captured by the screaming vortex of a quasar, where they merge and grow like some monstrous version of a solar system. This insane hypothesis is getting closer to reality, according to the papers in today’s space time journal club. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Thanks to LIGO we’ve now seen black hole mergers, but there was some striking surprises. For one thing, many of the merging black holes were too massive to have been formed by the collapse of stellar cores. That is if our understanding of stellar evolution is half as good as we think it is. This led astrophysicists to think about new ways to produce black hole mergers. Here’s the most awesome possibility: what if black hole mergers actually occur in orbit around supermassive black holes, embedded deep in the whirlpools of searing gas that surround some of these monsters? Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll be looking at a pair of 2019 papers that talk about this possibility. We have Yang et al., which predicts the properties of black holes that merge this way, and McKernan et al. which proposes a way for us to actually test this hypothesis. Special Thanks to our Patreon Sponsors: Big Bang: Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia
How To Capture Ghost Particles ft. Don Lincoln
How To Capture Ghost Particles ft. Don Lincoln
9 months ago
Explore the Fermilab YT Channel here: usa-video.net/u/fermilab Why is there something rather than nothing? Well the answer may be found in the weakest particle in the universe: the neutrino. For over half a century Fermilab has been the premier particle accelerator facility of the United States and we got to visit with Don Lincoln to explore it’s science and its engineering. These days many of the super-powered geniuses of Fermilab are tackling the mysteries of the neutrino. Why? Because this elusive particle may hold powerful secrets: from the unification of the forces of nature to the biggest question of all: why is there something rather than nothing? Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Hosted by: Matt O'Dowd & Don Lincoln Written by: Matt O'Dowd Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Director of Photography by: Ian Krass Graphics by: Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Editing by: Madeleine Ro Color by: Matt Braunsdorf Post Sound by: Alexander Mandel Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks: Andre Salles Special Thanks to Our Patrons Big Bang Alexander Tamas Andrew & Brenna David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Do Black Holes Create New Universes?
Do Black Holes Create New Universes?
9 months ago
Thanks to Brilliant for supporting PBS. Learn more at: brilliant.org/spacetime What if every single black hole that formed in our universe sparked the big bang of a new universe? Cosmological natural selection proposes exactly this - but even better, it claims to be able to test the hypothesis. Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Physicists have been struggling for some time to figure out why our universe is so comfy. Why, for example, are the fundamental constants - like the mass of the electron or the strength of the forces - just right for the emergence of life? Tweak them too much and life, stars, galaxies, the universe as we know it wouldn’t exist. In recent episodes we explored one possible explanation for this - the anthropic principle and the idea of the multiverse. If there are countless universes with different fundamental constants, then it’s not surprising that a few exist with the right numbers for life - and certainly not surprising that we find ourselves in one of those good ones. But if you don’t like the anthropic principle - and many scientists don’t - then rest assured, there’s an alternative. You only need to accept two things: that our universe formed inside a black hole, and that universes can evolve. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to our Patreon Sponsors: Big Bang Andrew & Brenna Alexander Tamas Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers Jamie Frederick John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
The Doomsday Argument
The Doomsday Argument
9 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Since the dawn of humanity around 100 billion people have lived. How many will live in the future of our species? We might hope for a trillion times that if we colonize the galaxy. But a simple statistical argument tells us that the doom of our species is much, much closer. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber In some recent episodes we’ve explored the anthropic principle and seen how it can be used to explain the fact that both our planet and our universe seem very finely tuned to allow the development of life. Our planet and/or universe can be rare and unlikely as long as there are enough other planets and/or universes to stack the odds in favour of our existence. We touched on both the potential power and potential misuse of this principle. Today we’re going to push our luck, and see how this controversial idea can be used to predict the physics of our universe, and also to predict the imminent demise of the human race. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Sponsors BIg Bang Andrew & Brenna Alexander Tamas Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers Jamie Frederick John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Is The Universe Finite?
Is The Universe Finite?
9 months ago
Thanks to Brilliant for supporting PBS. Learn more at: www.brilliant.org/spacetime The universe is big, really, really big. Although according to a new paper, it may literally be infinitely smaller than we previously thought. Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Every time you walk out the door, light from the Big Bang strikes your face, enters your eyes. This is the cosmic microwave background radiation - the left-over heat-glow from the very early universe. We can’t see this microwave light with our eyes, but we can catch it with even a simple radio antenna. As soon as we became aware of its existence we’ve been feverishly building better and better devices to collect it. Why? Because it encodes so many secrets. And within this light, a group of scientists have just found evidence of the limits of space. A clue that our universe may be actually be finite in size. Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll delve into the Nature Astronomy paper that just reported this: Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology by Eleonora Di Valentino, Alessandro Melchiorri, and Joe Silk. Special Thanks to Our Patreons Big Bang Alexander Tamas Andrew & Brenna Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Matt Miller Morgan Hough Quasar Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers Jamie Frederick John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Can You Observe a Typical Universe?
Can You Observe a Typical Universe?
10 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ The moment you started observing reality, you hopelessly polluted any conclusions you might make about it. The anthropic principle guarantees that you are NOT seeing the universe in most typical state. But used correctly, this highly controversial idea can be extremely powerful. So, how do you correctly use the anthropic principle? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to Dr. Flournoy!!! Check out his lectures Below: Particle Physics: usa-video.net/pl/PLDlWMHnDwylijo0yfs3xUN9ad6-YZjPLT General Relativity: usa-video.net/pl/PLDlWMHnDwyliMevB36wgRbjXhJkoN_RUQ According to the original definitions by Brandon Carter, the weak anthropic principle states that we must live in a place and time in the universe capable of supporting observers - in our case, a habitable biosphere, and the strong anthropic principle, which states that the universe itself must have the conditions necessary for producing environments that, in turn, produce observers. That means the fundamental constants and initial conditions of the universe must be just right to allow nice habitable planets to one day form. Let’s just call it the anthropic principle: we necessarily observe from an environment capable of producing observers; be that environment a planet within a universe or a universe within a multiverse. Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters: Alex Flournoy Alexander Tamas Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch
Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?
Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?
10 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Life exists in our universe. There we go - one hopefully uncontroversial statement. Therefore our universe is capable of producing and supporting life. How am I going? Two for two? Let’s try for three: therefore there are countless universes. Hmmm. Did I break my streak? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Our universe seems to operate according to a set of fundamental rules that we try to understand and model with the equations of our laws of physics. Those equations always include one or more fundamental constants - simple numbers that set the scale for the equation. We can’t determine the values of these constants from pure theory - we have to measure them in the real universe. These are things like the speed of light, the Planck constant, the masses of the elementary particles, and the constants defining the relative strengths of the fundamental forces - the so-called coupling constants. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Alexander Tamas Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers Jamie Frederick John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Why We Might Be Alone in the Universe
Why We Might Be Alone in the Universe
10 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Why does it appear, that humanity is the lone intelligence in the universe? The answer might be that planet Earth is more unique than we've previously assumed. The rare earth hypothesis posits exactly this - that a range of factors made Earth exceptionally unusual and uniquely able to produce intelligent life. In upcoming episodes we’ll be exploring the anthropic principle and its two main versions - the strong and the weak anthropic principles. The strong anthropic principle tells us that the observed universe must be able to produce observers - including the contentious idea that this predicts the existence of universes beyond our own. But in today's episode we’re going to focus on the weak anthropic principle. It says that we must find ourselves in a part of the universe capable of supporting us. For example, in a planetary biosphere rather than floating in the void between the galaxies. This may seems tautological, but accounting for this observer selection bias is important to understanding why the universe looks the way it does from our perspective. And the weak anthropic principle is much more useful than that. When combined with the apparent absence of alien civilizations, it may tell us why intelligent life is incredibly rare in our universe. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters BIg Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S joe pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Is Time Travel Impossible?
Is Time Travel Impossible?
11 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Time travel stories are cool because both the past and future are somehow more interesting that the present and because everyone wants a redo. But so far it appears we’re doomed to live consumed by regret in the eternal, boring present. Time marches on, inexorably and only forward. Or so we thought until Einstein came along. His special and general theories of relativity changed the way we think about time forever, and believe it or not, their raw equations permit time travel. They even tell us how to do it. So let’s review the possibilities, and decide how possible they really are. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to our Big Bang Supporters Big Bang Alexander Tamas Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S joe pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers Jamie Frederick John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Loop Quantum Gravity Explained
Loop Quantum Gravity Explained
11 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ It’s time we talked about loop quantum gravity. What exactly is it? What are the loops? And can it really defeat string theory in our quest for a Theory of Everything? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber The holy grail of physics is to connect our understanding of the tiny scales of atoms and subatomic particles with that of the vast scales of planets, galaxies, and the entire universe. To connect quantum physics with Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Our search for a theory of quantum gravity is a century old, and we’ve talked quite a bit about it already, including what’s probably the lead contender - string theory. But string theory isn’t the only game in town - or so some physicists believe. There may be another way to reconcile the physics of the tiny and the gigantic - another way to a theory of quantum gravity that avoids a lot of conceptual baggage like tiny wiggling strings made of coiled up extra dimensions. That other way would be loop quantum gravity, and today we’re going to learn exactly what it is. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters: David Barnholdt David Boyer David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S joe pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst: A G Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Black Hole Harmonics
Black Hole Harmonics
11 months ago
Learn more at www.brilliant.org/spacetime Black holes are crazy enough on their own - but crash two together and you end up with a roiling blob of inescapable space that vibrates like a beaten drum. And the rich harmonics of those vibrations, seen through gravitational waves, could hold the secrets to the nature of the fabric of spacetime itself. Today on space time journal club we’ll explore the papers that claim to have detected black hole harmonics. We’ll also give you the latest updates on the most recent - in some cases quite bizarre - LIGO detections. Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Murilo Lopes Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber When physicists talk about black holes they’re usually referring to highly theoretical objects - static, unchanging black holes viewed from “infinitely” far away. This makes everything clean and simple enough to attempt the already notoriously complex calculations of black hole physics. But real black holes are created in the violent deaths of massive stars, and there’s nothing clean about that. And we now know that black holes merge - and in the process produce gravitational radiation that we’ve only just managed to detect with the miraculous work of the LIGO and VIRGO gravitational wave observatories. In the instant after its merger, the new, joined black hole looks nothing like the idealized theoretical black hole. Special Thanks To All Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Anton Lifshits David Barnholdt David Boyer David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S Joe Pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Justin Lloyd Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
How Many Universes Are There?
How Many Universes Are There?
11 months ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ The universe is big, but it’s peanuts compared to the eternally inflating multiverse. But just how many universes are there? What are they like? And most importantly, what can they tell us about … aliens? Challenge Answer Winners Steven Mertens David DeLaney Chris Lotery Eneko Fabien Sangouard Ian Bonnell *Please email your selection from the Space Time Merch Store along with your address to pbsspacetime@gmail.com with the subject line “Challenge Question Winner” Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Imagine it: the observable part of our universe is 93 billion light years across, and that’s just a small fraction of the stuff created in our Big Bang. But in the eternal inflation picture, ours is just one among uncountable bubble universes. Bubbles that are continuously appearing and growing within a vastly larger spacetime that itself expands at an exponentially accelerating rate. A greater inflationary spacetime whose expansion never ends. We looked at the bizarre idea of eternal inflation in recent episodes - but we stopped short of exploring the full implications of this proposition. Those implications are, frankly, completely nuts. Some may also be true. Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Barnholdt David Boyer David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Matt Miller Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S Joe Pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: A.G. Adrian Molyneux Alec Zero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Smith James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Steve Bradshaw Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Is Pluto a Planet?
Is Pluto a Planet?
Year ago
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime You know what a planet is, right? A big round thing that orbits a star. Uh, not so fast. The surprisingly vicious debate over the planetary status of Pluto has given us a fascinating glimpse into what a scientific definition really is. And perhaps the word planet is too vague to be used as a scientific definition at all. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ We love to classify things. Labels help us keep stuff organized in our heads. In science, categorization provides a fast and easy way to know the properties of a member of the group just by knowing what group it belongs to. Chemists group elements on the periodic table, those groups exhibit similar chemical behavior that reflect outer-shell electron number. Biologists group organisms by similar physical characteristics, and this taxonomy reflects genetic relationships. Astronomers are all about space taxonomy. We classify galaxies based on their shape, black holes based on how they feed, stars based on their colour and brightness, and planets by… well, by a set of criteria that has caused more tension and heartbreak than any made-up grouping scheme really should. Because a change in that scheme demoted Pluto from planet to not-planet. Today we’re going to settle whether this was reasonable, and whether we should keep the word “planet” at all. Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Barnholdt David Boyer David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Matt Miller Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrian Molyneux Alec Zero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero Jason John Funai John Michael Kerr John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Steve Bradshaw Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Stephani Yurii Konovaliuk
Could We Terraform Mars?
Could We Terraform Mars?
Year ago
To discover more go to lego.build/CITYSpace Humanity’s future is glorious. As we master space travel, we’ll hop from one lifeless world to the next. Life will blossom in our path and the galaxy with shimmer with beautiful Earth-like orbs. Hmmm… maybe. This won’t sound so far fetched if we prove we can do it at least once. If we successfully terraform Mars. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Murilo Lopes Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ We already have the technology to bring humans safely to Mars and set up small settlements - or at least could do within a generation. But those settlements will need to be cocooned - shielded against the deadly cold, intense radiation, and the fatal lack of atmospheric pressure. Surely if we want to thrive on Mars - to make it into our second home - these settlers, or their descendants, will need to be able open the airlocks, shed their spacesuits, and step out onto a survivable surface. We’ll need to terraform Mars, as our first step in terraforming the galaxy. Red Iris Mars habitat by James Telfer: bit.ly/JamesTelferRedIris Want Even More Great Space Content? Check out the Exciting Summer of Space Playlist usa-video.net/u/playlist?list... Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Adrian Molyneux Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Nachefski Nick Virtue Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Taras Vozniuk Tim Jones Tim Stephani Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
Is Earth's Magnetic Field Reversing?
Is Earth's Magnetic Field Reversing?
Year ago
Please Take the PBS Digital Studios Annual Survey Here: www.pbsresearch.org/c/r/ST_YTvideo It's very helpful and you could win a free T-Shirt! Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Earth’s magnetic field protects us from deadly space radiation. What if it were drastically weakened, as a precursor to flipping upside down? I mean, it has before … many, many times.. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Special Thanks to Lathrop Lab at University of Maryland: complex.umd.edu/ Check Out Lathrop Lab's USa-video Channel to learn more about their 3-meter experiment that models the Earth's core: usa-video.net/c/UC-nUrQmFR3pFgEVwW0qAURA Spaceship Earth has a literal deflector shield. A geomagnetic field. Lines of magnetic force, forged by currents in the planet’s molten core, erupt from the surface close to the north south geographic poles, connecting to each other to wreath the planet in a dipole field, like a gigantic bar magnet. Magnetic fields exert a force on moving charged particles, causing them to spiral around those force lines. That’s helpful, because Earth is constantly bombarded by very fast moving charged particles, especially coming from the Sun. Our magnetic field deflects the worst of these. Not all planets are so lucky. Mars, with its solid core, has no such shield - and so the red planet’s atmosphere was stripped away by the solar wind billions of years ago. Want Even More Great Space Content? Check out the Exciting Summer of Space Playlist usa-video.net/pl/PLoFRvPlmME6FOQtdDKyOUzKJiTE6KXsK3 Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Adrian Molyneux Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Nachefski Nick Virtue Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Taras Vozniuk Tim Jones Tim Stephani Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
How To Become an Astrophysicist + Challenge Question!
How To Become an Astrophysicist + Challenge Question!
Year ago
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Do you want to major in Astrophysics? Are you thinking about becoming (or ever just wondered how one becomes) an Astrophysicists? Do you want to know Matt O’Dowd’s origin story? Then buckle up and enjoy the ride and try your astrophysics skill in calculating bubble universes to try to win some free Space Time Swag from the Merch Store. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Murilo Lopes Directed by: Eric Brown Produced By: Kornhaber Brown To Jump to Challenge Question: usa-video.net/n8cEZM1lN5g-video.html Email Challenge Answer to by 9/9/19: PBSSpacetime@gmail.com Subject line: Eternal Inflation Challenge Want Even More Great Space Content? Check out the Exciting STELLAR Playlist usa-video.net/u/playlist?list... Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Adrian Molyneux Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Nachefski Nick Virtue Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Taras Vozniuk Tim Jones Tim Stephani Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
What Happened Before the Big Bang?
What Happened Before the Big Bang?
Year ago
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime We actually have a pretty good idea of what might have happened before the Big Bang. That is, as long as we define the Big Bang as the extremely hot, dense, rapidly expanding universe that is described by Einstein’s equations. That picture of the universe is very solid down to about a trillionth of a second after the supposed beginning of time. We can make good guesses down to about 10^-30th of a second. But before that? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Check out the Big Bang and Cosmic Inflation Playlist to learn More usa-video.net/aPStj2ZuXug-video.html Want Even More Great Space Content? Check out the Exciting STELLAR Playlist usa-video.net/pl/PL1mtdjDVOoOqY7QPHGa9OppO_pjf91lbV Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Adrian Molyneux Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Nachefski Nick Virtue Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Taras Vozniuk Tim Jones Tim Stephani Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
Exploring a HUGE Radio Telescope in VR 180
Exploring a HUGE Radio Telescope in VR 180
Year ago
This is a VR180 video so pop on your Google Cardboard or VR Headset to be totally immersed in our world! No headset? No problem. Move your mobile phone around and catch the total 180 experience. Have fun looking down from the catwalk! How can you build a telescope that can see the entire night sky without moving its dish? Well in this special episode of Space Time we took a tour of the Arecibo Observatory with a VR 180 camera so you could explore the incredible ingenuity of Arecibo's giant spherical dish that allows it to reflect light from every spot on the sky in a symmetric way. We also talked to Dr. Abel Méndez about Exoplantes and Aliens! Check out our interview with Dr. Abel Méndez about Finding Exoplanets and Talking to Aliens: usa-video.net/RrH9LwD1bx4-video.html Hosted by Matt O’Dowd Written by: Matt O’Dowd Directed by: Eric Brown Director of Photography: Eric Brouse Sound: Brett Van Duesen Editing: Brian Nils Johnson Assistant Editing: Daniel Sircar Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime
What Caused the Big Bang?
What Caused the Big Bang?
Year ago
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Every astronomy textbook tells us that soon after the Big Bang, there was a period of exponentially accelerating expansion called cosmic inflation. In a tiny fraction of a second, inflationary expansion multiplied the size of the universe by a larger factor than in the following 13 and a half billion years of regular expansion. This story seems like a bit of a … stretch. Is there really any mechanism that could cause something like this to happen? What what we’re covering today - the real physics of cosmic inflation. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Dark Energy Playlist: usa-video.net/pl/PLsPUh22kYmNA6WUmOsEEi32zi_RdSUF4i The Quantum Vacuum and Hawking Radiation Playlist usa-video.net/OvgZqGxF3eo-video.html Most cosmologists buy some variation of the inflation hypothesis. It seems to very neatly solve some of the biggest questions in cosmology. Those being: why is matter and energy so smoothly spread out across the entire observable universe? And why is the geometry of the universe so flat? Neither should be expected unless the universe expanded much more rapidly early on. We explored these problems in an earlier video - worth a look if you really want to get inflation. Another problem fixed by inflation is the absence of magnetic monopoles - strange particles predicted to have been produced in the early universe. We’ll come back to those another time. Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
Deciphering The Vast Scale of the Universe | STELLAR
Deciphering The Vast Scale of the Universe | STELLAR
Year ago
Thank you to Draper and its Hack the Moon initiative for supporting PBS Digital Studios | Learn more at wehackthemoon.com. One of the fundamental questions humanity has always asked is how big is our Universe? For much of human history, people believed that Planet Earth was the very center of the entire universe. And Earth is pretty big. But compared the rest of the universe, we are infinitesimally small. The animation in this video the Digital Universe data collection curated by the American Museum of Natural History. The software is used to visualize these datasets is OpenSpace, which is developed through a collaboration between AMNH, Linköping University in Sweden, New York University, and the University of Utah. The software and datasets are open source and are free to download and explore. www.openspaceproject.com/ Credit: From the ESO Supernova to the end of the Universe at 00:52 usa-video.net/hy2cxmHuEAs-video.html Credit: ESO/L. Calçada/M. Kornmesser/spaceengine.org Credit: Cepheid Variable 4:06 usa-video.net/sXJBrRmHPj8-video.html NASA, ESA, M. Kornmesser I know, this video is a bit different from most Space Time videos. It's part of a PBS miniseries called Stellar, done in collaboration with Diana Cowern from @physicsgirl and Joe Hanson from @It'sOkayToBeSmart. Over six episodes we travel to telescopes, go inside space research centers, and chat with amazing scientists. Next up is Joe's episode where he explores where life might be outside our solar system. Check out Joe’s episode here: usa-video.net/XoxGOL-Ow9w-video.html Check out the other episodes in this series: The Quasar from The Beginning of Time | STELLAR www.youtube.com/watch?v=cqCPn… Seeing a Black Hole with a Planet-Sized Telescope | STELLAR www.youtube.com/watch?v=gUpKt… I Visited the First Gravitational Wave Detector! LIGO | STELLAR www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtp71… How We’ll Find the Aliens in Our Solar System! | STELLAR usa-video.net/zfqpYDVhXd8-video.html Stellar is a part of the PBS Summer of Space. There'll be lots of awesome space related content all summer long on PBS. See what's happening at www.pbs.org/summer-of-space/ #SummerOfSpacePBS #astrophysics #space Hosted by Matt O’Dowd Written by: Sophia Chen, Matt O’Dowd, Andrew Kornhaber, Eric Brown Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber & Eric Brown Producer: Randa Eid Director of Photography: Eric Brouse Sound: Justin Pope & Brett Van Duesen Production Assistant: Marifisia Bel Editing: Pavel Ezrohi, Tom Levin, Rebbecca Senn Graphics: Murilo Lopes Assistant Editing: Daniel Sircar Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime
Did Time Start at the Big Bang?
Did Time Start at the Big Bang?
Year ago
Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring PBS DS. You can check out LastPass by going to lastpass.onelink.me/HzaM/2019Q3JulyPBSspace Our universe started with the big bang. But only for the right definition of “our universe”. And of “started” for that matter. In fact, probably the Big Bang is nothing like what you were taught. A hundred years ago we discovered the beginning of the universe. Observations of the retreating galaxies by Edwin Hubble and Vesto Slipher, combined with Einstein’s then-brand-new general theory of relativity, revealed that our universe is expanding. And if we reverse that expansion far enough - mathematically, purely according to Einstein’s equations, it seems inevitable that all space and mass and energy should once have been compacted into an infinitesimally small point - a singularity. It’s often said that the universe started with this singularity, and the Big Bang is thought of as the explosive expansion that followed. And before the Big Bang singularity? Well, they say there was no “before”, because time and space simply didn’t exist. If you think you’ve managed to get your head around that bizarre notion then I have bad news. That picture is wrong. At least, according to pretty much every serious physicist who studies the subject. The good news is that the truth is way cooler, at least as far as we understand it. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Quantum Internet
The Quantum Internet
Year ago
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime When we finally have a quantum internet you’ll be able to simultaneously like and dislike this video. But we don’t. So I hope you like it. The world is widely regarded as being well and truly into the digital age, also called the information age. No longer are economies and industries solely characterised by the physical goods they produce, and in fact some of the largest companies in the world produce no physical goods at all: digital information is a commodity in its own right. As discussed in a previous episode, this worldwide digital economy is fundamentally reliant on certain cryptographic processes. Currently these processes work in the realm of classical cryptography, but one day soon this may not be enough and so quantum cryptographic methods and algorithms are being developed. However, it’s one thing to design a protocol, it’s something else entirely to build a system to support it. To understand what needs to be done we need to get to the foundations of quantum mechanics - we need to talk about quantum information theory. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
Thorium and the Future of Nuclear Energy
Thorium and the Future of Nuclear Energy
Year ago
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Energy too cheap to meter - that was the promise of nuclear power in the 1950s, at least according to Lewis Strauss chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. That promise has not come to pass - but with some incredible new technologies, perhaps it still could. The question is - should it? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown If we want to convert mass into energy, fission gives the most bang for our buck. Unfortunately that “bang” can be literal. Use of nuclear energy may risk the proliferation of nuclear weaponry, and there’s also the problem of nuclear waste, and the specter of horrible accidents. This last one was painted in terrifying detail in the recent dramatization of the Chernobyl disaster. Nuclear reactors sound scary because the disasters are pretty epic. However the reality is that far, far more people die from straight up air pollution due to coal-fired power plants than ever died in a nuclear reactor accident. In fact the radioactivity around coal-fired plants is also higher due to the trace but completely uncontained radioactive products of coal burning. But the most compelling attraction is that nuclear power doesn’t directly produce carbon emissions. In fact nuclear power may be our most sure path to reducing carbon emissions and halting climate change. But can we do nuclear power safely enough? There are modern ideas - including the much-hyped thorium reactor - that suggest maybe we can. Before we can understand those we’ll need to review how nuclear reactors work. Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Quasar from The Beginning of Time | STELLAR
The Quasar from The Beginning of Time | STELLAR
Year ago
Thank you to Draper and its "We Hack the Moon" initiative for supporting PBS Digital Studios. Learn more at wehackthemoon.com. Check out Physics Girl visit LIGO to see where they discovered Gravitational Waves usa-video.net/jtp71NT0GNg-video.html Recently, the oldest quasar ever seen was discovered by the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii, the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, as well as the Large Binocular Telescope in Arizona. In this first episode of the PBS DS mini-series, STELLAR, Matt travels to the top of Mauna Kea to visit the Gemini North telescope and see just how they found this ancient Quasar and it’s massive black hole. Stellar is a brand new miniseries done in collaboration with Dianna Cowern from @Physics Girl and Joe Hanson from @It's Okay To Be Smart Over six episodes we travel to some of the world's most important telescopes, go inside amazing space research centers, and talk with brilliant scientists. Next up, Dianna from Physics Girl visits LIGO observatory in Washington that detected the very first gravitational waves. Then Joe Hanson visits one of the telescopes that was part of world spanning Event Horizon Telescope. You'll be able to see future episodes on the Physics Girl and It’s Okay to be Smart USa-video channels, as well as the PBS Digital Studios Facebook page. Stellar is a part of the PBS Summer of Space. There will be lots of awesome space-related content all summer long on PBS. See what's happening at www.pbs.org/summer-of-space/ #SummerOfSpacePBS #astrophysics #space Special Thanks to Joy Pollard and Gemini Observatory for all their help making this episode. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by: Sophia Chen, Matt O'Dowd, Andrew Kornhaber, Eric Brown Directed by: Eric Brown and Andrew Kornhaber Producer: Randa Eid Director of Photography: Eric Brouse Sound: Tobi Nova Production Assistant: Anna Bosketti Editing: Pavel Ezrohi Graphics: Murilo Lopes Assistant Editing: Daniel Sircar Produced By: Kornhaber Brown
How Black Holes Kill Galaxies
How Black Holes Kill Galaxies
Year ago
To learn to think like a scientist check out Brilliant.org/SpaceTime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Black holes are really only dangerous if you get too close. Ha, who am I kidding. It turns out they may be responsible for ending star formation across the entire universe. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown When we first realized that black holes could have masses of millions or even billions of times that of the sun, it came as a bit of a shock. They were discovered as the driving force behind quasars, where matter is heated to extreme incandescence before its plunge into vast black holes. But if that weren’t enough, we soon realized that every single decent-sized galaxy contains such a supermassive black hole. By the beginning of the 21st century it became clear that black holes and the galaxies that contain them are very closely connected. The bigger the galaxy, the bigger its supermassive black hole. That might not sound surprising. What was weird was how closely they were connected. There’s a tight correlation between the mass the central black hole and the mass of the stars in the galactic bulge - that’s the central ball-like part of a spiral galaxy, or the entirety of an elliptical galaxy, and every bulge contains a supermassive black hole around one-one-thousandth its mass. And there’s an even tighter relationship between the black hole mass and the speed that stars are moving in their random orbits within the galactic bulge - the so-called stellar velocity dispersion - which itself depends of the total mass of the galaxy, including dark matter. Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Alchemy of Neutron Star Collisions
The Alchemy of Neutron Star Collisions
Year ago
Carl Sagan’s famous words: “We are star stuff” refers to a mind-blowing idea - that most atomic nuclei in our bodies were created in the nuclear furnace and the explosive deaths of stars that lived in the ancient universe. In recent years it’s become clear that the truth is even more mind-blowing. Many heavy elements - includes most precious metals - were produced in an even more spectacular event: the collision of neutron stars. In fact, according to a recent study most of the Earth’s supply of these elements was created in a single neutron star merger that took place near our Sun’s birth nebula 80 million years ago before Earth formed. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime #theuniverse #astrophyics #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown When I was in astrophysicist school they taught us that all of the elements of the periodic table between carbon and iron were produced in onion shells by nuclear fusion in the cores of very massive stars during the last phases of their lives. And that the elements heavier than iron were synthesized in the following supernova explosion. That latter process is well understood - the star’s dead core collapses and protons are converted to neutrons. The surrounding shells ricochet outwards, along with a layer of the iron and nickel core. The latter is blasted by a wave of neutrons, which get rammed into the escaping nuclei. Some of those captured neutrons convert back to protons and so elements all the way up the periodic table can be made. This is the rapid neutron capture or r-process. The rapid part is because neutrons are captured faster than nuclei can decay, making it possible to build very heavy nuclei. Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Cosmic Dark Ages
The Cosmic Dark Ages
Year ago
To Learn more about ExpressVPN, visit: www.expressvpn.com/spacetime We live in the stelliferous era. Somewhere between 10 and 1000 billion trillion stars fill the observable universe with light. But there was a time before the first star ignited. A time we call the cosmic dark ages. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Need a Black Hole Refresher usa-video.net/vNaEBbFbvcY-video.html #theuniverse #astrophyics #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Aaron Havley Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown In astronomy we study things that are very far away. It’s a powerful challenge because even the brightest objects are almost impossibly faint when you view them from the other side of the universe. But there’s an up side. If the light from some space object took billions of years to get to us then we see that object as it was billions of years ago. In this way we can peer back in time and literally see the past in motion. In fact we’re able to see some of the first stars and galaxies to ever form. But if we look beyond, both in distance and in time, there is … nothing. Darkness. For the hundred million years or so between the formation of the first atom and the formation of the first star there were no light sources in the universe. These were the cosmic dark ages. It’s a period of cosmic history rarely discussed because it’s hellishly difficult to observe. Fortunately scientists are devilishly clever. So what do we know about the time before stars? Special Thanks to our Patreon Supporters! Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Supporters: Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Antoine Brugier Chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Moyneux Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
Why Quantum Computing Requires Quantum Cryptography
Why Quantum Computing Requires Quantum Cryptography
Year ago
Try Audible for 30 days visit www.audible.com/spacetime or text spacetime to 500 500! Quantum computing is cool, but you know what would be extra awesome - a quantum internet. In fact if we want the first we’ll need the latter. And the first step to the quantum internet is quantum cryptography. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Need a Black Hole Refresher usa-video.net/vNaEBbFbvcY-video.html #cryptography #quantumcomputing #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Wille Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Quantum theory may seem like an obscure subject of questionable relevance to the average person. But in fact much of our technological world depends on our understanding of the quantum properties of the subatomic universe. And soon, perhaps very soon, we’ll be interacting with the weirdness of quantum mechanics even more directly - with the coming of quantum computing and the quantum internet. Quantum computing is a topic that’s that has been well covered, so we’re going to be talking about the quantum internet. Specifically quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution - the foundations of the prospective quantum internet. We may come back to quantum computer in detail - but for now let me show you why their advent will demand a quantum internet. Special Thanks to our Patreon Supporters! Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Supporters: Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Antoine Brugier Chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Moyneux Alexander Lazerev Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ratfeast Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Real Science of the EHT Black Hole
The Real Science of the EHT Black Hole
Year ago
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime How do you take a picture of a black hole and what can we learn from it? Our first ever actual bona fide photo of a black hole, made by the Event Horizon Telescope and revealed to the world in a press conference on April 10th. Since then it’s got plenty of coverage, because … I mean look at it. It’s a freaking black hole. It’s black, it’s holey, it’s everything we hoped it would be. Now that the giddiness has subsided and I personally have stopped spending hours on end staring at a black spot, we can take a breath and actually look at the real science here and discuss exactly how a picture like this could be taken and what we can learn from it. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Need a Black Hole Refresher usa-video.net/vNaEBbFbvcY-video.html #Blackhole #astrophysics #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Murilo Ceasar Lopes Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown So, how do you take a picture of a black hole? The beast in question is the supermassive black hole in the center of this - the M87 elliptical galaxy. It has an estimated mass of several billion times that of the Sun, which gives it an event horizon larger than the solar system. M87 is 53 million light years away, so resolving that black hole is equivalent to resolving a grain of stand on the beach in LA - if you’re standing in New York. By comparison, the Hubble Space Telescope would struggle to see a large watermelon over that distance. Big Bang: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar: Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: Antoine Bruguier Chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Moyneux Alexander Lazerev Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ratfeast Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
No Dark Matter = Proof of Dark Matter?
No Dark Matter = Proof of Dark Matter?
Year ago
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime We’ve been failing to detect dark matter for decades. Finally, the latest failure to detect dark matter may have actually proved its existence. One of these is true: either most of the matter in the universe is invisible and formed of something not explained by modern particle physics OR our understanding of gravity is completely broken. The debate over which is true has raged for decades, but may finally have been resolved in an unlikely way: the proof that dark matter exists, and really is an exotic, unknown substance, may have come from the discovery of two galaxies that appear to have no dark matter at all. Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll look at the papers that reveal this discovery: Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Need a Refresher to Fully Understand the Holographic Principle? usa-video.net/pl/PLsPUh22kYmNCHVpiXDJyAcRJ8gluQtOJR #darkmatter #astrophysics #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Kurtis Ross Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown The effect of dark matter was first noticed in 1933, when the legendary Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky noticed that the galaxies in the Coma cluster were moving too quickly to remain gravitationally bound within that cluster. He guessed the presence of “dunkle m aterie” - a dark matter invisible to his telescope but whose gravitational effect held the cluster together. As with many of Zwicky’s predictions - like the existence of neutron stars and gravitational lensing - this wasn’t taken seriously until decades later. The hunt for dark matter began in earnest after the early 70s when Vera Ruben, discovered that the rotation rates of spiral galaxies were too fast given the mass of their visible stars alone. They should throw themselves to pieces spinning that quickly - that is, unless, a gravitational force of unseen origin was holding them together. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar: Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: Antoine Bruguier chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Moyneux Alexander Lazerev Alexey Eromenko Andrewas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Holographic Universe Explained
The Holographic Universe Explained
Year ago
We live in a universe with 3 dimensions of space and one of time. Up, down, left, right, forward, back, past, future. 3+1 dimensions. Or so our primitive Pleistocene-evolved brains find it useful to believe. And we cling to this intuition, even as physics shows us that this view of reality may be only a very narrow perception. One of the most startling possibilities is that our 3+1 dimensional universe may better described as resulting from a spacetime one dimension lower - like a hologram projected from a surface infinitely far away. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Need a Refresher to Fully Understand the Holographic Principle? usa-video.net/pl/PLsPUh22kYmNCHVpiXDJyAcRJ8gluQtOJR #holographicuniverse #holographicprinciple #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Aaron Halevy Directing by Andrew Kornhaber The holographic principle emerged from many subtle clues - clues discovered over decades of theoretical exploration of the universe. Over the past several months on Space Time, we’ve seen those close clues, and we’ve built a the foundations needed to glimpse the true meaning of the holographic principle. We’ve moved from quantum field theory to black hole thermodynamics to string theory. We’ve made a background playlist if you want to start from scratch, and I especially recommend catching last week’s episode. But this is tough material, so let’s do a review. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
The Edge of an Infinite Universe
The Edge of an Infinite Universe
Year ago
Have you ever asked “what is beyond the edge of the universe?” And have you ever been told that an infinite universe that has no edge? You were told wrong. In a sense. We can define a boundary to an infinite universe, at least mathematically. And it turns out that boundary may be as real or even more real than the universe it contains. Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ #infinitity #edgeoftheuniverse #spacetime Learn More About Dark Energy Here: usa-video.net/u/playlist?list... Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Aaron Halevy Directing by Andrew Kornhaber Our universe may be infinite. In order to wrap our puny human minds around such a notion we like to come up with boundaries. For example we have the “observable universe” - that patch that we can see, and beyond which light has not yet had time to reach us. It’s boundary is called the particle horizon. Beyond it there exists at a minimum of thousands and possibly infinitely more regions just as large. Our observable universe is like a tiny patch of land in a vast plain. We define its horizon like we might build a little picket fence around our little patch - meaningless from the point of view of the plain, but it makes our patch feel more homey and us less crushingly insignificant. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Could the Universe End by Tearing Apart Every Atom?
Could the Universe End by Tearing Apart Every Atom?
Year ago
Of all the unlikely ends of the universe, the Big Rip has to be the most spectacular. Galaxies ripped to shreds, dogs and cat first living together, then tragically separated by the infinitely accelerating expansion of space on subatomic scales. Good thing it's not going to happen. Or is it? Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime #bigrip #endoftheuniverse #spacetime Learn More About Dark Energy Here: usa-video.net/u/playlist?list... Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Aaron Halevy Directing by Andrew Kornhaber The universe is expanding, and that expansion is accelerating. We don’t know what’s causing that acceleration, but that hasn’t stopped us from giving it a name. We call this unknown influence dark energy. The observed acceleration is, for the most part, nicely described with a constant density of dark energy - the same amount of this stuff in every block of space. Which means if you increase the volume you increase the overall amount of dark energy - hence accelerating expansion. Mathematically we describe a constant energy density with the cosmological constant in the equations of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. But what if dark energy is NOT constant? What if the energy density in each patch of space increases over time? In that case, the acceleration itself could be … accelerating. That would be bad. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي And a round of applause to Andreas Nautsch.
Is Dark Energy Getting Stronger?
Is Dark Energy Getting Stronger?
Year ago
Learn More about The Great Courses Plus: ow.ly/wvWC30o0QYV Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime The power of Dark Energy may be increasing as the universe ages. Subtle clues are emerging that the accepted model for the nature of dark energy and dark matter may not be all that. We saw the first such clue recently in our recent episode on the Crisis in Cosmology. Today we’re doing a Space Time Journal Club to reveal another clue. We’re looking at a new paper in Nature Astronomy, “Cosmological constraints from the Hubble diagram of quasars at high redshifts” by Risaliti and Lusso. It hints that the cosmological constant may not be so constant after all. In fact it may be increasing. If this is true, then our prediction for the future of our universe looks VERY different, and may involve the entire universe tearing itself to shreds at the subatomic level in the Big Rip. On this edition of Space Time Journal Club we look at: Risaliti & Lusso (2019) "Cosmological Constraints from the Hubble Diagram of Quasars at High Redshifts" www.nature.com/articles/s41550-018-0657-z #darkenergy #darkmatter #spacetime More about The Great Courses Plus: The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US, UK, and Australian markets. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. Learn More About Dark Energy Here: usa-video.net/pl/PLsPUh22kYmNA6WUmOsEEi32zi_RdSUF4i Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Aaron Halevy Directing by Andrew Kornhaber Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Will You Travel to Space?
Will You Travel to Space?
Year ago
Check out Sound Field: usa-video.net/u/soundfieldpbs Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Thanks to Matthias Rüby for on-site camera work. instagram.com/matthiasrueby/ The private space-race has been on for a while now. The attention has been on Space-X and Blue Origin with their reusable rockets. But there’s one private space program that’s been doing things a little differently. Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic isn’t building rockets at all - it’s building spaceships. And I got to sit down and talk to him about it. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUx... Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd On-site filming by Matthias Rüby Graphics by Aaron Halevy Directing by Andrew Kornhaber Amid the loud rivalry of between Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, amid the extravagance of self-landing rockets and … other displays, Virgin Galactic achieved something no other private space company ever has - in 2014 it became the first to put an actual person in space on board its SpaceShipOne - turning its pilot into the world’s first private astronaut. And then, on February 22nd, the VSS Unity, reached space in a sub-orbital flight carrying the first-ever passenger-astronaut on a private spacecraft. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines
The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines
Year ago
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime See Matt in NYC at Caveat March 7th at 9pm: www.caveat.nyc/event/astronaut-training-a-space-camp-game-show-for-lunatics-3-7-2019 Bad ideas come and go in physics. But there’s one bit of nonsense that is perhaps more persistent than all others: the perpetual motion machine. No working perpetual motion machine has ever been experiment verified. All break the laws of thermodynamics. In fact, we classify based on WHICH law of thermodynamics they break. We have perpetual motion machines of the first kind - they violate energy conservation - they pump more energy out than they need to keep running. This includes most of the historical devices. Then there are machines of the second kind - they’re a bit more subtle in their wrongness because break the second law of thermodynamics - extracting energy by reversing entropy. Many modern “free-energy” devices fall into this category. Now the best modern designs are by you - answers to our recent challenge question, which we’ll get to at the end. But first let’s take a look at examples of what other people came up with - this’ll be a fun little journey through some pretty terrible science. Challenge Winners Please Email pbsspacetime@gmail.com, with your choice of product from the Merch Store (pbsspacetime.com/) Connor Grey Creepy Magician Alex Taylor Adrien Romeo Epsilon Centauri Enoae Andrei Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUx... Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Kurt Ross Directing by Andrew Kornhaber Designing a perpetual motion machine has a very long history and became quite the craze from the middle ages through the renaissance. The first well-documented design for a perpetual motion machine was from the 12th century. Bhāskara's wheel, named after the Indian mathematician, was embedded with tubes of mercury that would flow from back and forth as the wheel turned. Other types of over-balance wheels followed through to the Renaissance and worked on the same principle. There were also designs that employed the magical-seeming lodestones - magnets. For example, this ramp in which a ball is pulled to the top by a magnet before falling through a hole and rolling to the bottom again. Then there are the self-pumping waterwheels or self-blowing windmills. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background
Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background
Year ago
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Hook up an old antenna to your TV and scan between channels. The static buzz you hear is mostly due to the ambient radio produced by our noisy pre-galactic civilization. But around one percent of that buzz is something very different - it’s the cosmic microwave background radiation - the remnant of the heat-glow released when the hot, dense early universe became transparent for the first time. It sound likes random static, but that buzz contains an incredible wealth of hidden information. It holds the secrets of the universe’s fiery beginning, Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time usa-video.net/PPpUxoeooZk-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Directing by Andrew Kornhaber It’s not surprising that scientists have spent half a century and built multiple satellites to unlock the mysteries of the cosmic microwave background. We’ve delved into its nature before - from its formation 380,000 years after the Big Bang, to its 1964 discovery by Penzias and Wilson with the Holmdel Horn Antenna, to its increasingly accurate mapping across the sky with ever-better satellites. It all culminated in this - the Planck satellite’s map of the CMB. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
Year ago
You can check out Google's Science Journal app at g.co/ScienceJournal Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Email your answers to: pbsspacetime@gmail.com With the subject heading: Negative Mass Challenge Question Invisible to the naked eye, our night sky is scattered with the 100s of billions of galaxies the fill the known universe. Like the stars, these galaxies form constellations - hidden patterns that echo the reverberations of matter and light in an epoch long before galaxies ever formed. These are the baryon acoustic oscillations, and they may hold the key to understanding the nature of dark energy. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong usa-video.net/IhpGdumLRqs-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Directing by Andrew Kornhaber The field of cosmology - the study of the universe on its largest scales - was once the least precise in all of astrophysics. The impossibly vast distances made accurate measurements near impossible. But as our telescopes and our techniques improved over the past few decades, things are now different. We live in the era of precision cosmology, in which we know to stunning detail the properties that govern the very birth, evolution, and end of our universe. We talked about one of those properties in a recent episode - the Hubble constant - and about a growing conflict in its measured value which hints at strange new physics. Today we’ll talk about another measurement that may help resolve this crisis: the baryon acoustic oscillations. They the fossils of the first sound waves in the universe, imprinted in the distribution of galaxies on the sky. And in these patterns we can read the expansion history of the universe. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Perpetual Motion From Negative Mass?
Perpetual Motion From Negative Mass?
Year ago
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Email your answers to: pbsspacetime@gmail.com With the subject heading: Negative Mass Challenge Question Challenge question: if 1kg of apples is $5 and 2kg is $10, how much is -1kg of apples? The answer? Priceless. Because you could use negative-mass apples to build warp drives, travel in time, and construct a perpetual motion machine. In fact that last one will be today’s actual challenge question. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong usa-video.net/IhpGdumLRqs-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Directing by Andrew Kornhaber Exotic matter - matter with negative mass - has long been the pipedream of science fiction writers, futurists, and certain rather. . . optimistic researchers. It’s the key to faster than light travel because it’s the only stuff that can curve space in the right way to hold open wormholes and construct warp fields. And if you can travel faster than light you can also travel backwards in time. We’ve been over those already. And we also recently covered a very new use for negative mass: as “dark fluid”, a proposed explanation for both dark matter and dark energy. That episode really got me thinking about the subtleties of negative mass and how it should really behave gravitationally. Turns out it’s complicated, and to answer it we really have to question the very definition of mass. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd TIm Davis Quasar James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O’Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Sammy J Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
The Crisis in Cosmology
The Crisis in Cosmology
Year ago
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime The search for a single number: the hubble constant, which is the rate of expansion of our universe, has consumed astronomers for generations. Finally, two powerful and independent methods have refined its measurement to unprecedented precision. The only problem is that they don’t agree. This calls into question some of our most basic assumptions about the universe. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong usa-video.net/IhpGdumLRqs-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Directing by Andrew Kornhaber In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered the universe. He gave us our first incontrovertible proof that there are galaxies outside the Milky Way by measuring the distances to the spiral nebulae. They were many millions of light years from us -far outside the Milky Way and so must be galaxies in their own right. Combined with the Doppler-shift velocity measurements of Vesto Slipher, Hubble revealed that the galaxies are not only receding from us, but they are receding at a rate proportional to their distance. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd TIm Davis Quasar Dean Fuqua James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mark Heising Matthew O’Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Richard Broman Sammy J Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Our Antimatter, Mirrored, Time-Reversed Universe
Our Antimatter, Mirrored, Time-Reversed Universe
Year ago
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime The foundations of quantum theory rests on its symmetries. For example, it should be impossible to distinguish our universe from one that is that is the perfect mirror opposite in charge, handedness, and the direction of time. But one by one these symmetries were found to be broken, threatening to break all of physics along with them. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong usa-video.net/IhpGdumLRqs-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Linda Huang In his famous lectures on physics, Richard Feynman talks about what it means to expect the universe to be identical in the mirror. For it to be parity-symmetric. He invites us to imagine a clock in a mirror reflection - numbers are backwards, components are all flipped left to right, and it ticks counterclockwise. And then we imagine building that mirror clock in reality. Everything is constructed as though reflected. Numbers get painted backwards. Every screw with right-handed thread or right-spiraling coil is replaced with a left-handed version. Our intuition tells us that the mirror clock should tick in exactly the same way, except counter-clockwise. Our intuition would be wrong. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Dean Fuqua James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mark Heising Matthew O’Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Richard Broman Sammy J Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Are Dark Matter And Dark Energy The Same?
Are Dark Matter And Dark Energy The Same?
Year ago
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Astronomers are the worst at naming things. Dark energy AND dark matter? Who can remember which is which. But perhaps one astronomer has just fixed it, with a theory that says perhaps actually they are they same stuff. Space Time Journal Club digs into "A Unifying Theory of Dark Energy and Dark Matter" by J. Farnes, 2018 arxiv.org/abs/1712.07962 Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong usa-video.net/IhpGdumLRqs-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Jamie Farnes, astrophysicist at Oxford just published a paper suggesting that both dark energy and dark matter may result from the same phenomenon. And it’s pretty wild: negative mass particles continuously popping into existence between the galaxies. This rather extravagant claim resulted in a hysterical response from the media. Our viewers’ perfect blend of bright-eyed curiosity and cynical skepticism led to many MANY requests for us to do an episode on this new result. You got it. Today on Space Time Journal Club, let’s pick apart J.S. Farnes 2018, “A unifying theory of dark energy and dark matter: Negative masses and matter creation within a modified Lambda-CDM framework”. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Dean Fuqua James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mark Heising Matthew O’Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Richard Broman Sammy J Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Why String Theory is Wrong
Why String Theory is Wrong
Year ago
To learn to think like a scientist check out Brilliant.org/SpaceTime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime There’s this idea that beauty is a powerful guide to truth in the mathematics of physical theory. String theory is certainly beautiful in the eyes of many physicists. Beautiful enough to pursue even if it’s wrong? Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe usa-video.net/UyTqgnKD3sw-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Hermann Weyl once said, “If I have to choose between beauty and truth, I choose beauty.” It was in reaction to a rebuke by Einstein. Weyl had tried to explain electromagnetism by imposing on Einstein’s general theory of relativity very first gauge symmetry, Weyl invariance. Einstein pointed out it the proposal led to some absurd results, and so the idea went down in flames. It just couldn’t be true, despite the elegance of the math. But sometimes it can be hard to let go of the sense that a beautiful theory must be right. Could this also be the case with string theory? Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Supporters David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Crane Dustan Jones Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jinal Doshi Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe
Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe
Year ago
To learn to think like a scientist check out Brilliant.org/SpaceTime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ When you look in mirror, and see what you think is a perfect reflection. You might be looking at universe whose laws are fundamentally different. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Did Life on Earth Come from Space? usa-video.net/REl20rlZGTw-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) When we think about symmetry, the first thing that comes to mind is mirror symmetry. Butterflies, Rorschach tests, and classically attractive faces all look the same when flipped left-to-right. In physics, a symmetry is when the laws of physics are unchanged due to some transformation of coordinates. We’ve seen examples where it is - the universe is symmetric to coordinate shifts in space, time, and even the rather abstract phase of the wave function. So it might be surprising to learn that with all the weird ways in which the universe IS symmetric, it’s NOT entirely symmetric under this most intuitive one. The laws of physics work differently in the universe of the mirror. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Matthew O’Connor Edmund Fokschaner Donal Botkin Danton Spivey Mark Heising Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Crane Dustan Jones Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero JJ Bagnell John Webber Jinal Doshi Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Shawn Azman Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Did Life on Earth Come from Space?
Did Life on Earth Come from Space?
Year ago
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ How did life on Earth get started? Did life on Earth originate on another planet? Either Mars, or in a distant solar system? Could Earth life have spread to have seeded life elsewhere? Let’s see what modern science has to say about the plausibility of panspermia. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: 'Oumuamua Is Not Aliens usa-video.net/wICOlaQOpM0-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Life existing on Earth is odd. The oldest fossils are now dated to only a few hundred million years after the moment Earth first became habitable. Is it really reasonable to imagine that evolution turned an unliving chemical soup into the first true living cells in that geological eye-blink? Well, maybe. But the discovery of the early appearance of life on Earth was definitely a big “huh, that’s weird” moment. And it’s inspired some creative thinking. For example, what if the first genesis of life - abiogenesis - is actually incredibly unlikely - so unlikely that it only happened once in the entire galaxy. And that “once” was not on Earth. What if primitive life arrived on Earth after having traveled vast distances across the Milky Way. Some scientists think this is the case. This is the Panspermia hypothesis. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Richard Senegor Shane Robinson Antonio Park Faisal Saud William James Sidis Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Mayank M, Methrotra Dean Fuqua ColeslawPurdie Joel Brinton James Flowers Vinnie Falco Josh Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Martha Hunt Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Brent Mullins Danton B Spivey Science Via Markets Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Brent Mullins Mark Heising Donal Botkin Shaun Williams Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Vitaly Kovalenko Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alex Soto Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Conor Dillon Daniel Lyons David Crane David Matteson Dustan Jones Florian Stinglmayr Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jessica F Jinal Doshi Jon Folks John Pettit Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kirk Mathews Loro Lukic Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Marc Lagarde Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Peeter Durocher Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
'Oumuamua Is Not Aliens
'Oumuamua Is Not Aliens
Year ago
To learn to think like a scientist check out Brilliant.org/SpaceTime To repeat the space time maxim: it’s never aliens … until it is. So let’s talk about ‘oumuamua. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality? usa-video.net/ztFovwCaOik-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Meah Denee Barrington Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Bialy & Loeb (2018) arxiv.org/pdf/1810.11490 Micheli et al. (2018) go.nature.com/2A9FncQ Last year a visitor came to our inner solar system. To us it looked like a faint spot of light, moving quickly relative to the fixed stars. We’d seen similar things countless times before - lonely rocks, remnants from the formation of our solar system, drifting on their endless orbits around the sun and faintly glimmering with its reflected light. Nothing unusual about such asteroids and comets, but what made this object special was its trajectory. It was not in orbit around the Sun at all. Rather, it appeared to have fallen in from interstellar space, and was on its way back out again. The object is 1I/2017 U1, better known as ‘Oumuamua. It’s the first chunk of interstellar space debris we’ve ever spotted passing through our solar system. It caused a justifiable stir at the time. Hell, WE even did an episode on it. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Brent Mullins Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Supersymmetric Particle Found?
Supersymmetric Particle Found?
Year ago
With the large hadron collider running out of places to look for clues to a deeper theory of physics, we need a bigger particle accelerator. We have one - the galaxy. Watch Two Cents here! usa-video.net/c/UCL8w_A8p8P1HWI3k6PR5Z6w You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Physics is currently in a weird place. Historically, no matter how crazy our theories got, there were always new ways to test them. Your theory predicts a new particle? Build a particle accelerator big enough to see it. But once your collider spans entire countries - like the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland - there’s only so much larger you can go - at least on the surface of the Earth. The LHC has thoroughly tested the standard model of particle physics. The last component of that model - the Higgs boson - was verified in 2013. But the standard model isn’t the end of the story - there MUST be a more fundamental theory that explains the origins of this rich family of particles. Proposals for such grand unified theories proliferate, unconstrained by even the tiniest hint of new physics from the LHC. Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Why String Theory is Right | Space Time usa-video.net/iTTa9YcTe1k-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Brent Mullins Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Why String Theory is Right
Why String Theory is Right
Year ago
You can learn more about The Great Courses Plus here: ow.ly/3qDN30hIvdb Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Some see string theory as the one great hope for a theory of everything - that it will unite quantum mechanics and gravity and so unify all of physics into one glorious theory. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Make Sure To Check Out The Great Courses Plus "The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US, UK, and Australian markets. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally." Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality? usa-video.net/ztFovwCaOik-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Why has string theory been the obsession of a generation of theoretical physicists? What exactly is so compelling about tiny, vibrating strings? In our last string theory episode I talked about what these things really are, and covered some history. In short: the strings of string theory are literal strands and loops that vibrate with standing waves. Simply by changing the vibrational mode you get different particles - analogous to how different vibrational modes on guitar strings gives different notes. And, by the way, strings exist in 6 compact spatial dimensions on top of the familiar 3. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Brent Mullins Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality?
Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality?
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Let me tell you a story about virtual particles. It may or may not be true. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Will We Ever Find Alien Life? usa-video.net/uhJ9lJPt09k-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossell and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Sometimes our mathematical hacks point to strange new aspects of reality. For example Max Planck used a quantization trick to figure out the spectrum of light emitted by hot objects. The quantization part of his math trick was meant to disappear in the final form of equation, but it remained - it proved fundamental. That math hack turned out to represent the very real quantum nature of the photon. This insight let to the discovery of all quantum physics. A more recent mathematical hack is the virtual particle. They started out as a trick to make impossible calculations in quantum field theory possible. Possible, at least, for the sort of people who can do quantum field theory. So will virtual particles also prove to represent a new underlying aspect of reality? We’re going to go pretty deep in this one - but it will bring us to a better understanding of the quantum nature of reality, so stick with me. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Brent Mullins Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Will We Ever Find Alien Life?
Will We Ever Find Alien Life?
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE You can learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime The silence of the galaxy and the resulting Fermi Paradox has perplexed us for nearly 50 years. But our most recent surveys of the Milky Way finally allow us to draw scientific conclusions about the depressingly persistent absence of aliens. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: What are the Strings in String Theory? usa-video.net/k6TWO-ESC6A-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) When Enrico Fermi uttered the words, “Where is everybody?” he was succinctly summarizing what has become known as the Fermi paradox. In short: in a galaxy of hundreds of billions of stars, each of which having billions of years to spawn life and civilization, isn’t it odd that none have made themselves apparent to us. Enrico Fermi was, supposedly, using this as an argument against the plausibility of interstellar travel. If aliens can travel between the stars, why haven’t they visited? But the paradox is much broader than this. There are several ways that an advanced civilization could give away their presence. Radio transmissions, robotic probes, or star-blotting solar arrays. A series of very recent surveys of our galaxy reveal none of the above, while at the same time proving the abundance of potentially habitable worlds. The Fermi paradox has become only more paradoxical, and these surveys are finally powerful enough to draw some serious conclusions about the rarity of advanced civilizations AND about the chance of us ever becoming one. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Justin Lloyd Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Dean Fuqua James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Dan Harris Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
What are the Strings in String Theory?
What are the Strings in String Theory?
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE To learn more about 23andMe head to 23andme.com/spacetime Why strings? What are they made of? How did physicists even come up with this bizarre idea? And what’s all this nonsense of extra dimensions? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Computing a Universe Simulation usa-video.net/0GLgZvTCbaA-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) In physics we like to reduce down our description of the mechanics of reality to the simplest possible form. We expect the most fundamental machinery to have the fewest possible moving parts - or free parameters. This is why the standard model of particle physics is considered incomplete. Its equations predict many things with stunning accuracy, but they first require us to tune many mathematical knobs and dials. We need to use physical measurement to fix 19 free parameters like the masses of particles. And then there’s gravity, which doesn’t fit into the standard model at all. So surely there exists a deeper set of cogs and wheels - a theory that brings all observable phenomena into the same mechanical framework. That would be a theory of everything, and this is the great hope of string theory. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Justin Lloyd Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Dean Fuqua James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Dan Harris Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Computing a Universe Simulation
Computing a Universe Simulation
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Physics seems to be telling us that it’s possible to simulate the entire universe on a computer smaller than the universe. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Space Time Challenge Winners Jin Du Loren Booker Kevin Selva Prasanna May Awbin John Reza Ian Grams Challenge Winners: Please PBSspacetime@gmail.com with your name, address, US t-shirt size - small, medium, large, extra large, or extra-extra-large and let us know which T you’d like. Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: How to Detect Extra Dimensions usa-video.net/3HYw6vPR9qU-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) I’m not saying the universe is a simulation. I mean it might be - I’m just not saying it. And perhaps it doesn’t make any difference. Even if this is the prime, the original physical universe, rather than somewhere deep in a simulation nest, we can STILL think of our universe’s underlying mechanics as computation. Imagine a universe in which the most elementary components are stripped of all properties besides some binary notion of existence or non-existence. Like, if the tiniest chunks of spacetime, or chunks of quantum fields, or elements in the abstract space of quantum-mechanical states can either be full or empty. These elements interact with their neighbors by a simple set of rules, leading to oscillations, elementary particles, atoms, and ultimately to all of the emergent laws of physics, physical structure, and ultimately the universe. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Justin Lloyd Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Brent Mullins Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
How to Detect Extra Dimensions | Space Time
How to Detect Extra Dimensions | Space Time
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE On this Space Time Journal Club we look at how gravitational waves can be used to search for extra dimensions of space! To learn more about CuriosityStream you can go to: www.curiositystream.com/space... and use the code "spacetime" during the sign-up process. "Limits on the number of spacetime dimensions from GW170817" Pardo, Fishbach, Holz & Spergel 2018 arxiv.org/abs/1801.08160 You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics usa-video.net/YNEBhwimJWs-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Justin Lloyd Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Brent Mullins Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics | Space Time
Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics | Space Time
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Between them, general relativity and quantum mechanics seem to describe all of observable reality. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: How Much Information is in the Universe? usa-video.net/XxVlGAFX7vA-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) The first few decades of the 20th century was a time of miracles for physics. First, Einstein’s relativity utterly changed the way we think about space, time, motion and gravity. Then the quantum revolution of the 20s and 30s overturned all of our intuitions about the subatomic world. Together, general relativity and quantum mechanics have allowed us to explain nearly every fundamental phenomenon observed, and have predicted many unexpected phenomena that have since been verified. And yet the two theories contradict each other in fundamental ways. In the century since that golden era of physics, we’ve been trying to reconcile the two … without success. But today on space-time I’m going to begin our discussion of the great quest for this union - the quest for a theory of quantum gravity, and for a theory of everything. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Brent Mullins Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
How Much Information is in the Universe? | Space Time
How Much Information is in the Universe? | Space Time
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE There’s quite a bit of stuff in the universe, to put it mildly. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: The Black Hole Entropy Enigma usa-video.net/Ab8JIzckx_M-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Twitter: @pbsspacetime Instagram: @matt_of_earth Hundreds of billions of galaxies, each with hundreds of billions of stars, each with … rather a lot of particles in them. And then there’s all the stuff that isn’t stars. The dark matter, black holes, planets, and the particles and radiation in between the stars and galaxies. Stuff EVERYWHERE! But… is the universe actually made of stuff? An increasing number of physicists view the universe - view reality as informational at its most fundamental level. But how big a memory bank would you even need to compute a universe? Seriously, let’s figure it out. Computational Capacity of the Universe (2001), by Seth Lloyd arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0110141 Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Brent Mullins Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
The Black Hole Entropy Enigma | Space Time
The Black Hole Entropy Enigma | Space Time
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thanks to CuriosityStream for supporting PBS Digital Studios. You can learn more at www.curiositystream.com/spacetime and use the code "spacetime" during the sign-up process. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Is There Life on Mars? usa-video.net/VmEY6T5Wc-Q-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Black Holes should have no entropy, but they in fact hold most of the entropy in the universe. Let’s figure this out. If black holes exist - which, apparently, they do - they contradict other theories in physics as sacred as general relativity. They cause all sorts of problems with quantum theory, which we’ve talked about and will review in a sec. But they also present an apparent conflict with the notion of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. It was while pondering that conflict that Jacob Bekenstein realized an incredible connection between black holes and thermodynamics. His insight launched an entire new way of thinking about the universe in terms of information theory, and ultimately led to the holographic principle. Which I promise we’re getting to and we’re almost there. We just need to understand string theory first and to understand that, you’re going need to know about why Black Holes contain most of the universe’s entropy. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Brent Mullins Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
Is There Life on Mars? | Space Time
Is There Life on Mars? | Space Time
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE There is no greater hero in our search for life on mars than a little robot named Opportunity. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: How Will the Universe End? usa-video.net/Qg4vb-KH5F4-video.html What does the future of our Universe hold? Alas Lewis & Barnes usa-video.net/hCXRnwpmJTc-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Otherwise landed in 2004 with its twin - MER-A, better known as Spirit. These six-wheeled golf-cart-sized robots were Swiss army knives of geological lab instruments. Opportunities most spectacular discovery where these cute little so-called berries. They turned out to be concretions of hematite - which means they were grown in wet environments with dissolved iron. Wet means water FYI. Both rovers found a variety of other geological signs of past water activity, really solidifying the picture of Mars' much more liquid past. Both rovers were supposed to shut down after around 90 days as Martian dust accumulated on their solar panels, cutting of their power supply. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Eugene Lawson John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss Ian Anoan James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
How Will the Universe End? | Space Time
How Will the Universe End? | Space Time
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thanks to Wix for supporting PBS Digital Studios. You can go to bit.ly/2o1DSHZ to get started on Wix Code! In 100 trillion years the era of stars will be over. We live in an unusual age - the age when the stars still shine. We should count ourselves lucky - nearly all of future history will be dark. But events will still unfold in that long, cooling darkness, and civilizations may endure. So how will the universe and its far-future denizens spend eternity? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction usa-video.net/7UwigY4SjKY-video.html What does the future of our Universe hold? Alas Lewis & Barnes usa-video.net/hCXRnwpmJTc-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) In 100 trillion years the last star in the universe will expand the final atoms of its hydrogen fuel and settle quietly into a dim white dwarf, before slowly fading to black over as it radiates away its remnant heat. The era of stars will be over. That 100 trillion years is 10,000 times the current age of the universe, and so the days of starlight and warmth have a way to go. But even when they are done, the universe will be young in comparison to the long, dark ages to follow. In fact our universe will spend almost all of its infinite time in darkness, slowly crawling towards maximum entropy and ultimate heat death. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Eugene Lawson John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss Ian Anoan James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction | Space Time
Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction | Space Time
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Let’s talk about the best evidence we have that the theories of quantum physics truly represent the underlying workings of reality. You can signup for your trial to The Great Courses Plus at: ow.ly/bugR30hIvbu Quantum field theory is notoriously complicated, built from mind-bendingly abstract mathematics. But are the underlying rules of reality really so far from human intuition? Or are physicists just showing off? For better or worse, the physicists are definitely on the right track. We know this because the predictions of quantum field theory stand up to experimental test time and time again. The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US, UK, and Australian markets. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: How Close To The Sun Can Humanity Get? usa-video.net/cOzaGEAGzzA-video.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Eugene Lawson John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Asa Hood Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss Ian Anoan James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
How Close To The Sun Can Humanity Get? | Space Time
How Close To The Sun Can Humanity Get? | Space Time
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Parker Space Probe successfully launched on August 12!!! parkersolarprobe.jhuapl.edu/ Help Us with the PBS Digital Studios Survey: to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey Check Out PBS ReInventors: usa-video.net/u/pbsreinventors You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Reversing Entropy with Maxwell's Demon usa-video.net/KR23aMjIHIY-video.html The Sun: an entity worshipped as a god throughout time and across cultures. The source of all life and sustenance for our little blue space rock, and also a force of unthinkable destructive power. But soon humanity will reach out its collective hand and come closer to touching the Sun than we ever have before with the launch of the Parker Solar Probe. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray سلطان الخليفي Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
Reversing Entropy with Maxwell's Demon
Reversing Entropy with Maxwell's Demon
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Can a demon defeat the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: The Misunderstood Nature of Entropy usa-video.net/kfffy12uQ7g-video.html Entropy is sometimes described as a measure of disorder or randomness. The second law of thermodynamics - the law that entropy must, on average, increase - has been interpreted as the inevitability of the decay of structure. This is … misleading. As we saw in our episode on the physics of life, structure can develop in one region even as the entropy of the universe rises. Ultimately, entropy is a measure of the availability of free energy - of energy that isn’t hopelessly mixed in thermal equilibrium. Pump energy into a small system and complexity can thrive.. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray سلطان الخليفي Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
The Misunderstood Nature of Entropy
The Misunderstood Nature of Entropy
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics has been credited with defining the arrow of time. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model usa-video.net/V5kgruUjVBs-video.html Entropy is surely one of the most intriguing and misunderstood concepts in all of physics. The entropy of the universe must always increase - so says the second law of thermodynamics. It’s a law that seems emergent from deeper laws - it’s statistical in nature - and yet may ultimately be more fundamental and unavoidable than any other law of physics. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray سلطان الخليفي Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook Malte Ubl
Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model
Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE In simple terms a gauge theory is one that has mathematical parameters, or “degrees of freedom” that can be changed without affecting the predictions of the theory. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model? usa-video.net/0mXW1zPlxEE-video.html&t As far as we can tell, mathematics is the language in which the universe is written. Our laws of physics are equations of motion, along with some associated constants. Previously we’ve talked a bit about the symmetries of these equations, and how they lead us to conserved quantities. But this is just the tip of the theoretical iceberg - sometimes investigating the symmetries of these equations predicts entirely new physics. The most remarkable example of this is the standard model of particle physics. You know, the most accurate physical theory in all of human history. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray سلطان الخليفي Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook Malte Ubl
Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model?
Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model?
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thanks to Curiosity Stream for supporting PBSDS. You can get the first 60 days free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/spacetime and use the code "spacetime" during the sign-up process. Since the discovery of the Higgs boson, physicists have searched and searched for any hint of new particles. That search has been fruitless. Until, perhaps, now. Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll look at a paper that reports a compelling hint of a new particle outside the standard model: the sterile neutrino. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: How Asteroid Mining Will Save Earth usa-video.net/TF6GRPaeLbk-video.html Regular neutrinos are a bit aloof. They don’t interact by the electromagnetic or strong nuclear forces - only by the weak nuclear force and gravity. They are so weakly interacting that they pass through matter like it isn’t there. To have a 50-50 chance of stopping any given neutrino you’d need a wall of lead … one light year thick! If regular neutrinos are aloof, then sterile neutrinos are the complete loners. They don’t even interact via the weak interaction. Even so, detection of sterile neutrinos would be incredibly important. Besides being the first expansion of the standard model family since the Higgs boson, sterile neutrinos are a candidate for dark matter, and their existence would have had a huge influence on the expansion of the early universe. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook Malte Ubl
How Asteroid Mining Will Save Earth
How Asteroid Mining Will Save Earth
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thanks to Audible for supporting PBSDS. To start your free 30 day trial and receive a free audiobook visit www.audible.com/spacetime or text spacetime to 500 500! The days of oil may be numbered, but there’s another natural resource that’s never been touched, Asteroids. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The Black Hole Information Paradox usa-video.net/9XkHBmE-N34-video.html The richest person in modern history, was John Davison Rockefeller, His net worth was three times greater than that of our richest tech billionaires, inflation adjusted. And the source of that fortune? Timely exploitation of a vast, then-untapped natural resource: oil. Well, the days of oil may be numbered, but there’s another natural resource that’s never been touched, is effectively inexhaustible, and has a dollar value large enough to disrupt entire economies. That resource? Asteroids, and the precious materials they contain. Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson predicts that the world’s first trillionaire will be an asteroid miner. The Rockefellers of the 21st century may be less like the internet and tech moguls of the 20th century and more like the old-school oil barons of the 19th century. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook Malte Ubl
The Black Hole Information Paradox
The Black Hole Information Paradox
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thank you to Brilliant for sponsoring this episode! To find out more, visit: brilliant.org/SpaceTime We’ve established by now that black holes are weird. The result of absolute gravitational collapse of a massive body: a point of hypothetical infinite density surrounded by an event horizon. At that horizon time is frozen and the fabric of space itself cascades inwards at the speed of light. Nothing can travel faster than light, and so nothing can escape from below the event horizon- not matter, not light, not even information. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed usa-video.net/HF-9Dy6iB_4-video.html These ideas are pretty mind-blowing, but as crazy as black holes are, they’re also kind of … simple. Don’t get me wrong; the math is complicated. But the objects themselves are simple. In fact every black hole in the universe, no matter how it formed or what happened to it afterwards, can be perfectly described with only three properties. Those properties are mass, angular momentum, and electric charge. Or at least this is the proposition behind the famous no-hair conjecture, or no-hair theorem. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
What Survives Inside A Black Hole?
What Survives Inside A Black Hole?
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE You can get a free trial of The Great Courses Plus at ow.ly/c7tI30hIva3 We’ve established by now that black holes are weird. The result of absolute gravitational collapse of a massive body: a point of hypothetical infinite density surrounded by an event horizon. At that horizon time is frozen and the fabric of space itself cascades inwards at the speed of light. Nothing can travel faster than light, and so nothing can escape from below the event horizon- not matter, not light, not even information. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed usa-video.net/HF-9Dy6iB_4-video.html These ideas are pretty mind-blowing, but as crazy as black holes are, they’re also kind of … simple. Don’t get me wrong; the math is complicated. But the objects themselves are simple. In fact every black hole in the universe, no matter how it formed or what happened to it afterwards, can be perfectly described with only three properties. Those properties are mass, angular momentum, and electric charge. Or at least this is the proposition behind the famous no-hair conjecture, or no-hair theorem. Written and hosted by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US, UK, and Australian markets. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally.
Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed
Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE If you have perfect knowledge of every single particle in the universe, can you use the laws of physics to rewind all the way back to the Big Bang? Is the entire history of the universe perfectly knowable? Or has information somehow lost along the way? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: Noether's Theorem and The Symmetries of Reality usa-video.net/04ERSb06dOg-video.html The laws of physics are equations of motion. They are mathematical rules that dictate how systems evolve in time. Newton’s equations for classical mechanics, Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism, and the Schrodinger equation for quantum mechanics. These laws can be used to predict how the universe will evolve into the future. They are deterministic; perfect knowledge of a system in the present perfectly predicts how the system will change in the next instant, and the instant after that, ad infinitum. But determinism in the forward-time direction does NOT guarantee that the same laws can perfectly predict the past. And yet this sort of deterministic symmetry - time-reversal symmetry - is essential for information itself to be conserved. Today we learn why conservation of information is such a fundamental requirement of quantum mechanics. In a future episode we’ll see how this law might be broken by black holes. Here's that fun proof that independent quantum states can't evolve into the same quantum state while preserving unitarity! Apologies for the unavoidable technical notation, but a quick college course in introductory quantum mechanics will get you up to speed in no time :-P bit.ly/2Lpm6sL Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
Noether's Theorem and The Symmetries of Reality
Noether's Theorem and The Symmetries of Reality
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE To learn more about Brilliant, you can go to brilliant.org/spacetime/ Conservation laws are among the most important tools in physics. They feel as fundamental as you can get. And yet they’re wrong - or at least they’re only right sometimes. These laws are consequences of a much deeper, more fundamental principle: Noether’s theorem. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! usa-video.net/u/timedtext_cs_... Previous Episode: How Gaia Changed Astronomy Forever www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jdy09... Conservation laws are the cheat codes of physics. They make it possible to solve physics problems that would otherwise be painfully difficult, or even impossible. More than cheat codes - conservation laws are close to the source code - they emerge from profound and simple truths about the basis of reality. They emerge from the fundamental symmetries of nature. The connection between conservation laws and symmetry is encapsulated in Noether’s theorem. But before we dive into this extremely elegant idea, let’s talk about the seeming paradox that inspired it, and the genius who discovered it. Written and hosted by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
c. guibbs123
c. guibbs123 - 9 minutes ago
No, we can't ! No magnetic field, not enough water to fulfill Mankind needs...
Ken Cheong N.
Ken Cheong N. - 14 minutes ago
you've got a really big head
arctor303
arctor303 - 15 minutes ago
What if everything in the universe, was created outside and it comes in the universe. Something like a vaccum cleaner, the universe is the vacuum cleaner bag, and what we see comes from outside. The vacuum cleaner bag expands with the time and there are celestial bodies that are older that the universe itself, because they were created outside it.
Arun Ao
Arun Ao - Hour ago
'Surya Siddhantha' is the most oldest written documentation on cosmos and solar system. You can have real scientific study of it. It's awesome.
Aditya Ganju
Aditya Ganju - Hour ago
Takeaway: I am not overweight. I just have more energy!
Kevin McMahon
Kevin McMahon - Hour ago
We may be able to measure the height and breadth of a event horizon but measuring the depth (3rd D) will always be impossible. The Event Horizon, both near to far, with the singularity along the way, can never be measured. Quantum Mechanics cannot solve this thorough experiment. Now we know that Black Hole event horizons will forever be 2D objects.
ElderGod4
ElderGod4 - Hour ago
A wave of possibility sounds cool but I Highly doubt it.. like highly highly come on..
Art
Art - Hour ago
4:50 there are at least 2 mistakes on the diagram :(
Nader Abed
Nader Abed - Hour ago
Why don't more people question whatever scientists say? We have no proof that the Earth is 4.5 billion years old, or that the Sun is 93-4 million miles away from Earth.
doc crowley
doc crowley - Hour ago
i always thought galaxies were flat because of centrifugal force
Almir Ahmedic
Almir Ahmedic - 2 hours ago
We dont know how much species on earth live and 99% species are disepierd
Ares Lee
Ares Lee - 2 hours ago
-blk hole with a singularity -finite space and time -law of conservation of energy means that in order for a black hole to create a singularity in which a universe can form from it must consume the required mass to create stars, galaxies, planets, asteroids, and gas clouds -blk holes that transfer attracted gas through rifts in space -infinite space and time -no singularity -follows laws of conservation of energy and mass transfered cannot create a larger universe than the energy transferred That is my common sense am I understanding it correctly and this video is not making any sense to me? I do not know where he is getting the energy from to create multiverses in both examples. I imagine it like a soap bubble that one puts energy or air inside if it is a singularity time and space is finite but if it pops to a different dimension than it expands to an unknown or incalculable (infinite) space and time. Apologies if I am making ediotic remarks :-P
Almir Ahmedic
Almir Ahmedic - 2 hours ago
Inteligent life is rare on earth you have bilion trillion species and only man is clever and need to have water mond and one big planet behind maybee only one in one galaxire like man existed and only last 100 years man have Technology
rlangendam
rlangendam - 2 hours ago
What happens to the associated universes when two black holes collide in this model?
azzan66
azzan66 - 2 hours ago
It's called a theory, which means that it has yet to be proven! Very misleading title.
rfvtgbzhn
rfvtgbzhn - 2 hours ago
Maybe the whole assumption that all forces can be unified to one force is wrong. I mean it's only an assumption that is not based on anything, except that it would be a nice thing if we could describe all forces with one theory.
Gamina Wulfsdottir
Gamina Wulfsdottir - 2 hours ago
"How shall we explain causality, the speed of light, and space-time in easy-to-understand terms?" "Let's explain it in terms of a rollerskating pony with a skateboarding monkey on its back... and the monkey is ELECTRIC...!"
Bradenthor
Bradenthor - 2 hours ago
If the said computer was powerful enough to compute the entire bit capacity of the universe, it would collapse space time itself and become its own black hole. Observing the computer would be a paradox because it would eventually overtake our physical observation of it, at an exponential factor. To us it would look like its doing nothing, but to the computer itself it would be collapsing spacetime into bits at the speed of light. Depending on the "power" of the computer and thus the size of the universe it could physically reach "download" speeds that exceed the speed of light. The computer would operate very similarly to a black hole, eventually computing/ downloading the entire universe in an instant.
Blaze Ottawa
Blaze Ottawa - 3 hours ago
There is at least 2. One is the world god created for us, so we could experience the beauty of life and existance. The second was created corporate fiction by laws of men in order to enslave other men so we can make them rich by experienceing endless toil and servitude. The only way back into the first universe is to destroy the second universe. Good luck fellow slaves.
Mitchell Tabios
Mitchell Tabios - 3 hours ago
None sense
leghunter
leghunter - 3 hours ago
Playback @ 0:5 speed grasshopper.
Thomas Sicard
Thomas Sicard - 3 hours ago
Too bad some dude with a really brash Boston accent didn't narrate this...
ChrisGX75
ChrisGX75 - 3 hours ago
Please stop playing ads in the middle of the videos.
Amma vanta Hema k
Amma vanta Hema k - 3 hours ago
Spr
Autumn_Sun
Autumn_Sun - 3 hours ago
Why do you even need to be on the surface to study a planet? Venus high altitude base seems way more practical than anything on Mars.
Jø Kərr
Jø Kərr - 3 hours ago
Anyone else confused about why there's an elephant on the train? People and books I can understand, but an 🐘 is just random af, lol. What kind of trains have you been taking, sir? 😂
jeff jones
jeff jones - 3 hours ago
I have heard that Einstein had claimed TIME is an illusion. I didn't know he claimed gravity was also an illusion.
Tony Lalangue
Tony Lalangue - 4 hours ago
Congratulations to PBS on this excellent web program.
Jay Kemm
Jay Kemm - 4 hours ago
That's what I thought.
Dendrite Digital
Dendrite Digital - 4 hours ago
The algebraic mesh of three physical laws Einstein * Coulomb / Newton (E=mc^2)*(F=KQq/r^2)/(F=GMm/r^2) (m/m)(F/F)(r^2/r^2)(Kc^2/G)(Qq/m) E=(Kcc/G)(Qq/M) L=Kcc/G=1.210625e37 (Kg m / C / s)^2 E=LQq/m As you can see below the units of Kcc/G cancel with the variables except for Kg m^2 / s^2 which is the same as a Joule a measure of energy. E=energy K=electromotive constant=8.99e9 Kg m^2 / C^2 / s^2 c=the speed of light=299,792,458 m / s G=the gravitational constant=6.67408e-11 m^2 / kg / s^2 Q=the charge of the universe minus q q=the charge of the object M=the mass of the object
Fred Parkinson
Fred Parkinson - 4 hours ago
The universe is expanding in all 4 dimensions and 'now' is the edge of the expansion in the time direction.
Williemay100
Williemay100 - 4 hours ago
What if Time is actually needed for gravity because space time is the field that gravity works over? I’m probably pulling this out of my ass
godadojo
godadojo - 4 hours ago
The only issue i have with this video, is when they compare a 1d line with a cylinder. As a cylinder is a 3d object, shouldnt it be a law of inverse cubes rather than squares? I know my knowledge is far from a physics professors, but it seems odd to describe a 3d shape as a 2d object...lemme know!
Chad LaRue
Chad LaRue - 4 hours ago
You post 20 minute videos of stuff you purely spectate. Words in circles. Come up with a seriously compelling concept
Dendrite Digital
Dendrite Digital - 5 hours ago
The algebraic mesh of three physical laws Einstein * Coulomb / Newton (E=mc^2)*(F=KQq/r^2)/(F=GMm/r^2) (m/m)(F/F)(r^2/r^2)(Kc^2/G)(Qq/m) E=(Kcc/G)(Qq/M) L=Kcc/G=1.210625e37 (Kg m / C / s)^2 E=LQq/m As you can see below the units of Kcc/G cancel with the variables except for Kg m^2 / s^2 which is the same as a Joule a measure of energy. E=energy K=electromotive constant=8.99e9 Kg m^2 / C^2 / s^2 c=the speed of light=299,792,458 m / s G=the gravitational constant=6.67408e-11 m^2 / kg / s^2 Q=the charge of the universe minus q q=the charge of the object M=the mass of the object
Big Dog
Big Dog - 5 hours ago
Honestly I dont really care because I'll be dead. So I'm just going to enjoy what time is left here on earth....nuff said. 👍
Ayush Verma
Ayush Verma - 5 hours ago
Mind blowing
3rdworldtraveler
3rdworldtraveler - 5 hours ago
Where do you buy your weed
Bob Allison
Bob Allison - 5 hours ago
Where does the mass come from?
Fonz De Vries
Fonz De Vries - 6 hours ago
I don't know what it is, so it must be a extra dimension. Trust me the voice in my head says so
David Tal
David Tal - 6 hours ago
great. now i want a fire breathing, bat-winged zebra unicorn avatar when i game in sandbox MMO's.
NEOSOLAIRIS
NEOSOLAIRIS - 6 hours ago
Does speed of the particle size mass or size of the slit effect the path? Almost feels like preprogrammed also does the spot the particle land at random and at what point does it start to overlap?
L.W. Paradis
L.W. Paradis - 6 hours ago
Science relies in some manner and to some extent on "uniformity of nature." What this means becomes problematic as soon as you start looking at it closely. But the principle is always presupposed in some way. It has to be. The less things were "like they are now," the less you can say with any certainty about what they were like. The scientific description of the "singularity" is at this point in the eye of the beholder.
Dendrite Digital
Dendrite Digital - 6 hours ago
The algebraic mesh of three physical laws Einstein * Coulomb / Newton (E=mc^2)*(F=KQq/r^2)/(F=GMm/r^2) (m/m)(F/F)(r^2/r^2)(Kc^2/G)(Qq/m) E=(Kcc/G)(Qq/M) L=Kcc/G=1.210625e37 (Kg m / C / s)^2 E=LQq/m As you can see below the units of Kcc/G cancel with the variables except for Kg m^2 / s^2 which is the same as a Joule a measure of energy. E=energy K=electromotive constant=8.99e9 Kg m^2 / C^2 / s^2 c=the speed of light=299,792,458 m / s G=the gravitational constant=6.67408e-11 m^2 / kg / s^2 Q=the charge of the universe minus q q=the charge of the object M=the mass of the object
rick hale
rick hale - 6 hours ago
After a long life immersed in the sciences I am satisfied that the universe has a Creator. I don't know why that offends so many people. If the Godless are correct the empty oblivion that is their end holds no meaning for their existence one way or the other so it's pointless to criticize. Nihilism is a cold, empty, pointless way to live and the one thing I've found people like to share is their misery. Very sad.
Billy Masterson
Billy Masterson - 6 hours ago
Target being a sponsor is really random.
Jared Kaiser
Jared Kaiser - 6 hours ago
7:35 And then there is PUREX.
Mike Kawk
Mike Kawk - 6 hours ago
No, it started when the first human decided he needed a way to measure and predict. Stop confusing the plebs with these half-assed philosophical questions.
David Tal
David Tal - 6 hours ago
@Matt you talk about blackholes a lot and ive a question about a doosy. the supermassive at the center of our galaxy holds the whole thing together of course, due to its collosal gravity... but can we measure that? specificly is there a way to detect gravity waves from that big boy, and if so... how? further, how would we tell the difference between the gravity ways of That, and ... whatever else.
Jon Dunmore
Jon Dunmore - 6 hours ago
So what I'm getting is: if it weren't for a FEMALE SCIENTIST, we'd never have Pink Floyd.
SF
SF - 6 hours ago
Mathematical perfection was also pursued by Plato; how is this any different?
David Tal
David Tal - 7 hours ago
this is all a facinating concept, but HIGHLY improble and it begs a serious question that hasnt been covered. That being: what happens to the supposidly created universes when one black hole when one black hole swollows another? this, assuming that the tunnel-like connection that created the theoritial alternate universe didnt collapse after said universe's creation and is still active funneling matter and such that the black hole on This side collects, to the other.
Br Ca
Br Ca - 7 hours ago
The true beauty is how new theories can contain the old idea. The greatest beauty is that the language of math gives us comprehensible answers. If anything more beautiful is the following: LIGO and the ability to listen to the wiggle of spacetime, the Cassini spacecraft and it's decent across the atmosphere struggling to keep its antenna pointed to the Earth. and the New Horizons look at Pluto and sees a dynamic world then look back to see a blue atmosphere. Can you imagine being the person observing this data coming in? Seeing things never even thought possible. The problem with superstring is it makes predictions that require more energy than we can make. The hope was to use supersymmetry to act as an intermediary between us and the world of superstring world. Guess what so far almost all the proposed models have not been made at CERN. What is the solution? Build an even bigger particle accelerator. Science over the past 1000 has given us an unprecedented view of what reality is. It is not just chemistry and physics. It is economics that guides institutions to make good decisions. Medicine which can produce medications that can alleviate so many diseases and disabilities. Psychology and sociology can help us understand an individual's behavior that can be erratic and sociology that help us understand cities, nations, and the world. For me, all of this shows the love that I can only see as God. If you cannot believe this then politely say nothing. Then when we view your work we show you that same courtesy. My hope is that we can see this science and understand our shared heritage.
azzan66
azzan66 - 7 hours ago
The first problem with the rare earth theory is that we have no reference to either prove or disprove the theory since we aren’t a space faring race. Until we become a space faring race Fermi’s paradox is a mute point! We absolutely won’t know if there is a great filter event until that event is upon us, at which time it will already be too late! So otherwise, this video is a great experiment of how to waste time on a theory that can neither be proven or disproven, but will steal almost 16 minutes of your life to waste it on going no where!
Patrick Noel
Patrick Noel - 7 hours ago
Cpu
Patrick Noel
Patrick Noel - 7 hours ago
The 4d inside of 2d as a three dimensional living
Dra Williams
Dra Williams - 7 hours ago
I get high on neutrinos oh, that's why I'm looking toward a future of neutrino spectroscopy, and that's going to be my first paper
Dra Williams
Dra Williams - 7 hours ago
The most amazing thing about the Higgs particle of that it appears to be everywhere all of the time oh, it's not like when I throw a pebble in the water and I see the Rings come out many different Higgs particles it's not just one, here's where chest comes into play, and y'all might think I'm crazy for saying this but the aliens have already figured this out
Dra Williams
Dra Williams - 7 hours ago
We we have to stop chasing the dog of higher energies and realize what kek, data that we have and spend time looking at the data that came from Japan has developed for us, kek took all of the data from the Large Hadron Collider and all the other experiments broke it down and put it on paper, there's a lot of things going on in there we will chasing the dog of the Higgs particle but if we look back there's a lot of data there and I'm happy that they brought kek into United States where it belong this is cutting-edge technology I hope the scientists of comfortable and happy being in the United States its 4 national security reasons and also, reading and processing the data from all the billions of collisions that we've done over. Of more than 10 years, yields a lot of information
Dra Williams
Dra Williams - 7 hours ago
And I think outside of the standard model that we're looking at weak interacting massive particles and weak interacting not massive particles what you'll be different difficult to detect, I thought that we had all the basic information we have a good foundation in the standard model it works very well now we have to look at the un standard model
Dra Williams
Dra Williams - 7 hours ago
One of the problems of the collider is that it only is has detectors and scintillating that can detect certain particles, we need to increase and hypothesize the possibility of the other particles and put detector plates inside the reactor that they made the detector no matter how far-fetched oh, they may sound to be and it would be interested we can computer change the nature of these detectors what time what time opening up
Waskel E. Wabbit
Waskel E. Wabbit - 7 hours ago
It'd be a great place for a retirement village with the lower gravity
Dra Williams
Dra Williams - 8 hours ago
I saw and data coming from the Hadron Collider, in 2008 that gave me a clue that the Higgs particle I think it was discovered then in the data the clues came then but as we increase energy and luminosity it just verified it but we're going to move outside of the scope we're driven there of the electromagnetic spectrum and there's billions and billions of particles that we have not detected yet because we can't reach these energy so looking at energetic Cosmic particles and Quasar gives us a lot of data oh, we could never reach these temperatures on Earth, without destroying the entire planet, but let's continue forward
Sebas
Sebas - 8 hours ago
Hi Matt Q: Where are the quasars today? Why we can't see them close to us but only very far away?
Dra Williams
Dra Williams - 8 hours ago
Eventually we're going to move out of the standard model because that's our future the standard model is the foundation of everything in the electromagnetic spectrum, I was shocked to find out not too much because I knew nothing not too much because I knew nothing doesn't exist, everything is something, and we're only in the infancy of our understanding of subatomic particles and interactions, the oscillation of neutrinos was not too much of a surprise to me but I knew something was happening
Dra Williams
Dra Williams - 8 hours ago
And I love Keck oh, there you get a breakdown of all the nature and characteristics of the particles in the Collision broken down so you could understand it I'm glad we have kek in the United States
Dra Williams
Dra Williams - 8 hours ago
Tweaking the luminosity and always seeing more Precision with the head on collisions, and the calculations of those collisions was quite impressive that I never forget that
Dra Williams
Dra Williams - 8 hours ago
With the Large Hadron Collider, I was seeing Luminosity increase exponentially, and also the detection of a particle that came out of the formula of the Collision
Bengt Creations
Bengt Creations - 8 hours ago
It must be TEA TIME...
EJ St
EJ St - 8 hours ago
I have another theory. We will never be able to really know. Information goes in, none can return. And the very laws of physics that binds our universe together is believed to entirely break down beginning at the event horizon. If true, then without that binding, it would be instant chaotic destruction to anything going in. Even time itself. (It isn't that time is 'perceived' as slowing down, it's just becoming non-existent. No form of mass, energy, or time could continue existing in any conceivable way. Even gravity itself may become twisted into something so chaotic until it entirely disappears that we have nothing in our physical universe to make any comparisons with in order to fully comprehend it. And perhaps that is really what a collapsed star ends up becoming. Simply non-existential gaps in the physical universe where the laws of physics can no longer function. A place of zero existence in any form. I seriously doubt they are tunnels to other universes. Just a truly bottomless pit on non-existence.
Katrina Taylor
Katrina Taylor - 8 hours ago
Why does it have to be either? What if it represents a high mass, high density, unknown class of objects?
Delphi Builder
Delphi Builder - 8 hours ago
The true electron is a class; all other electrons are an instance of that.
Sebas
Sebas - 8 hours ago
Hi from +54!! Question: If naked singularities exist, why we can't see them yet? Is there a candidate at least?
Soul Jacket
Soul Jacket - 8 hours ago
IMAGINE AN INFINITE NUMBER OF BIG BANGS, or is your imagination infinitely small?
Like Bot
Like Bot - 8 hours ago
I guess we're observing the emergent properties of something simple. So simple that it's difficult to impossible to find the elementary causes.