PBS Eons
PBS Eons
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Join hosts Hank Green, Kallie Moore, and Blake de Pastino as they take you on a journey through the history of life on Earth. From the dawn of life in the Archaean Eon through the Mesozoic Era - the so-called “Age of Dinosaurs” -- right up to the end of the most recent Ice Age.
Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios

Video
When Giant Hypercarnivores Prowled Africa
When Giant Hypercarnivores Prowled Africa
3 days ago
Thanks to Raycon wireless earphones for supporting PBS. Go to buyraycon.com/eons to learn more. These hyaenodonts gave the world some of its largest terrestrial, carnivorous mammals ever known. And while these behemoths were the apex predators of their time, they were no match for a changing world. Thanks to Dr. Matthew Borths and Dr. Nancy Stevens for allowing us to use images from their recent paper on Simbakubwa, including the wonderful paleoart of Mauricio Antón: www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2019.1570222?journalCode=ujvp20 And big thanks to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations: Julio Lacerda (Simbakubwa kutokaafrika and Hyainailouros sulzeri): 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Ceri Thomas (Megistotherium osteothlastes and Hyainailouros napakensis): alphynix.tumblr.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Gina Viglietti, Laura Sanborn, Jack Arbuckle, David Sewall, Anton Bryl, Ben Thorson, Andrey, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Eric Vonk, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1mgEzWAIIAZvoegeq8pM7ZlJx14ct3lUnTDUZxayjxfg/edit?usp=sharing
How We Domesticated Cats (Twice)
How We Domesticated Cats (Twice)
16 days ago
A 9,500 year old burial in Cyprus represents some of the oldest known evidence of human/cat companionships anywhere in the world. But when did this close relationship between humans and cats start? And how did humans help cats take over the world? Big thanks to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations: Julio Lacerda (who illustrated the Cyprus grave site): 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Ceri Thomas (who illustrated Felis silvestris lybica): alphynix.tumblr.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Gina Viglietti, Laura Sanborn, Jack Arbuckle, David Sewall, Anton Bryl, Ben Thorson, Andrey, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Eric Vonk, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1PrjxNeht0mNaC1ROZQtSd4vs6eFljlq0Wk0W4Twh7ZQ/edit?usp=sharing
Were These Monsters Inspired by Fossils?
Were These Monsters Inspired by Fossils?
23 days ago
Check out Monstrum's full episode on Cyclops: usa-video.net/s-pMfIWl4kI-video.html People have been discovering the traces and remains of prehistoric creatures for thousands of years. And they’ve also probably been telling stories about fantastic beasts since language became a thing. So, is it possible that the monsters that populate our myths and legends were influenced by the fossil record? Big thanks to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations: Julio Lacerda: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Ceri Thomas: alphynix.tumblr.com/ Fabrizio De Rossi: 252mya.com/gallery/fabrizio-de-rossi Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Jack Arbuckle, David Sewall, Anton Bryl, Ben Thorson, Andrey, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Eric Vonk, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1s-B10qu0VmnL5gGV9_BWnUaRgq_Jn_u-eO6QwJMUbAs/edit?usp=sharing
When Hobbits Were Real
When Hobbits Were Real
Month ago
Thanks to Raycon wireless earphones for supporting PBS. Go to buyraycon.com/eons to learn more. Subscribe to Sound Field: usa-video.net/c/UCvMLMyKPomE6kTTL9Kv8Iww Its discoverers named it Homo floresiensis, but it’s often called “the hobbit” for its short stature and oddly proportioned feet. And it’s been at the center of a major controversy in the field ever since. Was it its own species? Or was it really just one of us? Or, could it even have descended from a whole lineage of hominins that we don’t even know about? Thank you to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations: Julio Lacerda: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Ceri Thomas: alphynix.tumblr.com/ Franz Anthony: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony Fabrizio De Rossi: 252mya.com/gallery/Fabrizio-De-Rossi Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Jack Arbuckle, David Sewall, Anton Bryl, Ben Thorson, Andrey, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Eric Vonk, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1_m5Cr8QO358MZf69S18ba50RkGLL7Ew46i5ITAbHsCs/
The Case of the Dinosaur Egg Thief
The Case of the Dinosaur Egg Thief
Month ago
Check out Serving Up Science! usa-video.net/u/PBSFood Paleontologists found a small theropod dinosaur skull right on top of a nest of eggs that were believed to belong to a plant-eating dinosaur. Instead of being the nest robbers that they were originally thought to be, raptors like this one would reveal themselves to actually be caring parents. Thanks to Nathan E Rogers and Studio 252MYA for their Citipati illustrations. You can check out more of Nathan's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/nathan-e-rogers Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Jack Arbuckle, David Sewall, Anton Bryl, Ben Thorson, Andrey, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Eric Vonk, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1CunjpWLsddaD4_h9PdaQh8_1uVaGX00NgQhSl_AEg0s/edit?usp=sharing
When Antarctica Was Green
When Antarctica Was Green
Month ago
Help Eons out and fill out this survey! www.pbsresearch.org/c/r/Eons_YTvideo Before the start of the Eocene Epoch about 56 million years ago--Antarctica was still joined to both Australia and South America. And it turns out that a lot of what we recognize about the southern hemisphere can be traced back to that time when Antarctica was green. Check out Crash Course: AI: usa-video.net/a0_lo_GDcFw-video.html Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the Notiolofos and Antarctodon illustrations! Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com And thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the Antarctodolops illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/julio-lacerda And thanks to John Long for allowing us to use of images of Devonian plants from his paper with S. McLoughlin: www.cambridge.org/core/journals/geological-magazine/article/new-records-of-devonian-plants-from-southern-victoria-land-antarctica/012522677CB38AC05C9F457CF287BA41 Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Jack Arbuckle, David Sewall, Anton Bryl, Ben Thorson, Andrey, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Eric Vonk, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1sazFo3OXE4kzsBJjX6EStUZIK-ye4M86v1p21db4HQI/edit?usp=sharing
When Giant Lemurs Ruled Madagascar
When Giant Lemurs Ruled Madagascar
Month ago
Our new pin! store.dftba.com/collections/all/products/eons-enamel-pin Just a few thousand years ago, the island of Madagascar was inhabited by giant lemurs. How did such a diverse group of primates evolve in the first place, and how did they help shape the unique environments of Madagascar? And how did they get winnowed down, leaving only their smaller relatives behind? Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the lemur illustrations! Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com And thanks as always to Nobu Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, David Sewall, Anton Bryl, Ben Thorson, Andrey, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1zMyq0yX9msdLBWjBKoUJEFfPjnCiYECaCjFggHDqiHA/
How Pterosaurs Got Their Wings
How Pterosaurs Got Their Wings
2 months ago
When pterosaurs first took flight, you could say that it marked the beginning of the end for the winged reptiles. Because, strangely enough, the power of flight -- and the changes that it led to -- may have ultimately led to their downfall. Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the excellent Scleromochlus illustration! Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com And thanks as always to Studio 252mya for their wonderful illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, David Sewall, Anton Bryl, Ben Thorson, Andrey, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/12cR7l-Kh9wwNtlPhO6xvZ7kqDiL2pGQ7Auo1MLgLTt4/edit?usp=sharing
When Bats Took Flight
When Bats Took Flight
2 months ago
Bats pretty much appear in the fossil record as recognizable, full-on, flying bats. And they show up on all of the continents, except Antarctica, around the same time. So where did bats come from? And which of the many weird features that bats have, showed up first? Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the early bat illustrations! Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, David Sewall, Anton Bryl, Ben Thorson, Andrey, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1VPccWSNkODzBifBt4R-RI8nApVRKe5pSfG8qeouiZqE/edit?usp=sharing
The Raptor That Made Us Rethink Dinosaurs
The Raptor That Made Us Rethink Dinosaurs
2 months ago
Get access to our quarterly livestream! patreon.com/eons In 1964, a paleontologist named John Ostrom unearthed some fascinating fossils from the mudstone of Montana. Its discovery set the stage for what’s known today as the Dinosaur Renaissance, a total re-thinking of what we thought we knew about dinosaurs. Thanks as always to Studio 252mya for their wonderful paleoart. You can check out more of their work at 252mya.com Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/10klSylMBlVCqSxJOdf2DEL8k-t_Yytjg0wGru11Xpkk/edit?usp=sharing
The Missing Link That Wasn’t
The Missing Link That Wasn’t
3 months ago
The myth of the Missing Link--the idea that there must be a specimen that partly resembles an ape but also partly resembles a modern human--is persistent. But the reality is that there is no missing link in our lineage, because that’s not how evolution works. Complexly has a new show! Check out Journey to the Microcosmos, which takes you on a dive into the tiny, unseen world that surrounds us: usa-video.net/c/UCBbnbBWJtwsf0jLGUwX5Q3g Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Lovejoy, A.O. 1936. The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press Ackermann, R.R., Rogers, J., Cheverud, J.M. 2006. Identifying the morphological signatures of hybridization in primate and human evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 51 (6): 632-645. Theunissen, L.T. 2012. Eugène Dubois and the Ape-Man from Java: The History of the First ‘Missing Link’ and Its Discoverer. Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin, Germany. Berger, L.R, De Ruiter, J., Churchill, S.E., Schmid, P., Carlson, K.J., Dirks, P.H.G.M., Kibii, J. 2010. Australopithecus sediba: A New Species of Homo-Like Australopith from South Africa. Science, 328: 195-204. Warren, K.A., Ritzman, T.B., Humphreys, R.A., Percival, C.J., Hallgrímsson, B. and Rogers Ackermann, R. 2018. Craniomandibular form and body size variation of first-generation mouse hybrids: A model for hominin hybridization. Journal of Human Evolution, 116: 57-74 Hawks, J., & Cochran, G. 2006. Dynamics of adaptive introgression from archaic to modern humans. PaleoAnthropology, 101-115. Gould, S.J. 1980. The Piltdown conspiracy. Natural History 89:8-28. Balter, M. , 2010 . Candidate human ancestor from South Africa sparks praise and debate. Science 327, 154-155. Dirks, P.G. H .M, Kibii, J.M., Kuhn, B. F. et al. 2010. Geological setting and age of Australopithecus sediba from Southern Africa. Science 328, 205-208 McHenry, H. 1998. Body proportions in Australopithecus afarensis and A. africanus and the origin of the genus Homo, Journal of Human Evolution, 32 1-22. Lewin, R. 1987. Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-47651-3. D’Costa, K. 2014. The Missing Link that Wasn’t. Scientific American, available at: blogs.scientificamerican.com/anthropology-in-practice/the-missing-link-that-wasne28099t/ www.nature.com/articles/139269a0.pdf #MissingLink #HumanEvolution #PBSEons
Was This Dinosaur a Cannibal?
Was This Dinosaur a Cannibal?
3 months ago
Paleontologists have spent the better part of two decades debating whether Coelophysis ate its own kind. It turns out, the evidence that scientists have had to study in order to answer that question includes some of the strangest and grossest fossils that any expert would ever get to see. Thanks to Fabrizio De Rossi and Studio 252mya for the Coelophysis illustration. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/gallery/fabrizio-de-rossi Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1s1CUTh2bAjYomLOq7rzMKAbOn_YD5M1FuBV-5Y_PL5A/edit?usp=sharing
When Giant Deer Roamed Eurasia
When Giant Deer Roamed Eurasia
3 months ago
Megaloceros was one of the largest members of the deer family ever to walk the Earth. The archaeological record is full of evidence that our ancestors lived alongside and interacted with these giant mammals for millennia. But what happened when they did interact, when humans met this megafauna? Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1_8Tk5Zrz-Seoivce4uJB8Bdpvm64tfyHIHvg13leXVQ/
How Earth's First, Unkillable Animals Saved the World
How Earth's First, Unkillable Animals Saved the World
3 months ago
Support us on Patreon: patreon.com/eons They have survived every catastrophe and every mass extinction event that nature has thrown at them. And by being the little, filter-feeding, water-cleaning creatures that they are, sponges may have saved the world. Thanks to Franz Anthony and Julio Lacerda for their wonderful illustrations of sponges and snowball earth and other things. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1u3wv-ZbYE7XJAUHWkjZXVw3U0-JRzw4y7ydBSNmfnBA/edit?usp=sharing
How Volcanoes Froze the Earth (Twice)
How Volcanoes Froze the Earth (Twice)
4 months ago
Over 600 million years ago, sheets of ice coated our planet on both land and sea. How did this happen? And most importantly for us, why did the planet eventually thaw again? The evidence for Snowball Earth is written on every continent today. Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Franz Anthony from Studio 252mya for their wonderful illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/ Special thanks to Judy Pu for answering our questions about Snowball Earth. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1dRTf9IcH_1vA5SfEKbHhgwbYC6XL5mGImebexd_3ihk/edit?usp=sharing
When We Met Other Human Species
When We Met Other Human Species
4 months ago
We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with. Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
When Ichthyosaurs Led a Revolution in the Seas
When Ichthyosaurs Led a Revolution in the Seas
4 months ago
The marine reptiles Ichthyosaurs arose after The Great Dying, which wiped out at least 90 percent of life in the oceans, changing the seas forever and triggering a new evolutionary arms race between predator and prey. Thank you to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations: Julio Lacerda: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Ceri Thomas: alphynix.tumblr.com/ Dmitry Bogdanov: www.deviantart.com/dibgd Nobu Tamura: spinops.blogspot.com/ Franz Anthony: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony Nikolay Zverkov: www.deviantart.com/ngzver Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1VIHx9s6bjXg-LCbDoV4s4VOMguipItkbQXgK_ZwVSCk/edit
When the Synapsids Struck Back
When the Synapsids Struck Back
5 months ago
Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Synapsids were the world’s first-ever terrestrial megafauna but the vast majority of these giants were doomed to extinction. However some lived on, keeping a low profile among the dinosaurs. And now our world is the way it is because of the time when the synapsids struck back. Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the excellent Synapsid illustration (including Bulbasaurus!)! Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com And thanks as always to Studio 252mya for their wonderful illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1YbTns-AcONtRWN9pdOZMfiqYDP5-3Hb-zt1gtDMV1Fw/edit?usp=sharing
How Evolution Works (And How We Figured It Out)
How Evolution Works (And How We Figured It Out)
5 months ago
Watch the Deep Time Hall livestream here: facebook.com/EonsPBS/videos/424570291712824 You can set a reminder on that post to be notified when it goes live! Don’t forget to check out When Whales Walked: Journeys in Deep Time: www.pbs.org/tpt/when-whales-walked/ As a scientific concept, evolution was revolutionary when it was first introduced. With the help of all three of our hosts and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History’s new Deep Time Hall, we’ll try to explain how evolution actually works and how we came to understand it. This episode was written by Darcy Shapiro. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/cuvier.html evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/history_08 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/%3C?%20echo%20$baseURL;%20?%3E_0_0/history_12 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/history_09 ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/lamarck.html evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/history_07 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/%3C?%20echo%20$baseURL;%20?%3E/history_14 www.amnh.org/exhibitions/darwin/a-trip-around-the-world people.wku.edu/charles.smith/index1.htm wallacefund.info/content/biography-wallace wallacefund.info/content/1858-darwin-wallace-paper evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/evo_25 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/evo_37 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_48 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/%3C?%20echo%20$baseURL;%20?%3E_0/history_13 www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/gregor-mendel-and-the-principles-of-inheritance-593 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/history_18 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/history_19 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/history_20 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_16 www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/01/6/l_016_02.html www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/natural-selection-genetic-drift-and-gene-flow-15186648 phys.org/news/2018-08-truth-darwin-moth.html evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/history_21 www.wired.com/2010/09/florida-panthers/ Bowler, P. (2001). History of Evolutionary Ideas: The Modern Synthesis. ELS: Encyclopedia of the life sciences, 1-5. Papavero, N., & Santos, C. F. M. D. (2014). Darwinian evolutionism? Contributions of Alfred Russel Wallace to the theory of evolution. Revista Brasileira de História, 34(67), 159-180. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2283958#page/490/mode/1up
The Hellacious Lives of the "Hell Pigs"
The Hellacious Lives of the "Hell Pigs"
5 months ago
Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Despite the name, we don’t know where the so-called “hell pigs” belong in the mammalian family tree. They walked on hooves, like pigs do, but had longer legs, almost like deer. They had hunched backs, a bit like rhinos or bison. But as is often, if not always, the case, there is some evolutionary method to this anatomical madness. Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the excellent Entelodont illustrations! Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com And thanks to Julio Lacerda and Lucas Lima for their wonderful illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1Ie3bYTS7zlmi03vJmTBKmPiPfxoLrtxmJGVNyCGOV1s/edit?usp=sharing
The History of Climate Cycles (and the Woolly Rhino) Explained
The History of Climate Cycles (and the Woolly Rhino) Explained
5 months ago
Learn more about Hack the Moon at wehackthemoon.com Check out Reactions’s Summer of Space video on the Northern Lights! usa-video.net/8S_LPFOa-zs-video.html Throughout the Pleistocene Epoch, the range of the woolly rhino grew and shrank in sync with global climate. So what caused the climate -- and the range of the woolly rhino -- to cycle back and forth between such extremes? Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the excellent Woolly Rhino illustration. You can find more of Julio's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3885.2009.00122.x www.nature.com/articles/nature08024 science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6248/602 www.nature.com/articles/nature11493 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016703753900519 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0277379108001741 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0277379112002326 science.sciencemag.org/content/255/5044/560 science.sciencemag.org/content/297/5585/1287 science.sciencemag.org/content/207/4434/943 agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2016GL071307 adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGM....18.SC12D data.giss.nasa.gov/ar5/srorbpar.html www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0277379111001417 www.researchgate.net/publication/285683499_Woolly_rhino_Coelodonta_antiquitatis_distribution_in_Northeast_Asia biocycle.atmos.colostate.edu/shiny/Milankovitch/ curry.eas.gatech.edu/Courses/5225/ency/Chapter10/Ency_Atmos/Ice_age.pdf Markovic, A. "Woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1803) from Pleistocene of Serbia." Bulletin of the Natural History Museum of Belgrade (A) 47 (1998): 217-237.
The Ghostly Origins of the Big Cats
The Ghostly Origins of the Big Cats
6 months ago
Learn more about ExpressVPN: www.expressvpn.com/eons All of today’s big cat species evolved less than 11 million years ago and yet their evolutionary history remains an almost total mystery. But scientists have recently discovered a major clue about the origins of the big cats, one that could provide a whole new starting place for solving this puzzle. Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the excellent Panthera blytheae and Panthera atrox! Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios THANK YOU to our amazing Cenozoic Patreon patron, Patrick Seifert!! And to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Tseng, Z. J. et al. (2014). Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20132686. Johnson, W. et al. (2006). The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: a genetic assessment. Science 311: 73-77. Davis, B. et al. (2010). Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 64-76. Turner, A. and Antón, M. (1997). The big cats and their fossil relatives. New York: Columbia University Press. Werderlin, L. and Lewis, M.E. (2005). Plio-Pleistocene Carnivora of eastern Africa: species richness and turnover patterns. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 121-144. Zhou Y. et al. (2017). Comprehensive species set revealing the phylogeny and biogeography of Feliformia (Mammalia, Carnivora) based on mitochondrial DNA. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0174902.
When We Took Over the World
When We Took Over the World
6 months ago
Check out Monstrum! usa-video.net/u/monstrumpbs From our deepest origins in Africa all the way to the Americas, by looking at the fossils and archaeological materials we have been able to trace the path our ancestors took during thee short window of time when we took over the world. Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the human migration illustration. You can find more of Julio's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1GizNGXmo0E8fTugfJApTfAfj2pt9G4izy0ML42M7wSE/edit?usp=sharing
The Croc That Ran on Hooves
The Croc That Ran on Hooves
6 months ago
Our Pocket Shirt!: store.dftba.com/collections/eons/products/eons-pocket-shirt In the Eocene Epoch, there was a reptile that had teeth equipped for biting through flesh, its hind legs were a lot longer than its front legs and instead of claws, its toes were each capped with hooves. How did this living nightmare come to evolve? Thank you to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations: Ceri Thomas: alphynix.tumblr.com/ Fabrizio De Rossi: 252mya.com/collections/shop/fabrizio-de-rossi Nobu Tamura: spinops.blogspot.com/ Esther van Hulsen: www.esthervanhulsen.com/ Stanton Fink: www.deviantart.com/avancna Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/10sSrksRBIWihmoNKDGt03OGCHaEDzY2tHiBimPrV0_Q/edit?usp=sharing
The Mystery Behind the Biggest Bears of All Time
The Mystery Behind the Biggest Bears of All Time
7 months ago
Our new shirt! store.dftba.com/products/eons-pocket-shirt The short-faced bears turned out to be remarkably adaptable, undergoing radical changes to meet the demands of two changing continents. And yet, for reasons we don’t quite understand, their adaptability wasn’t enough to keep them from going extinct. Thanks to Fabrizio De Rossi and Studio 252mya for the Arctodus and Arctotherium illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/gallery/fabrizio-de-rossi And thanks to Ceri Thomas for the Plionarctos and Arctotherium reconstructions! Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: docs.google.com/document/d/1Eg5riA7VgBKCFvTNtXMdbE0Y9B8VjSNGBbivKlmFszY/edit?usp=sharing
When We Tamed Fire
When We Tamed Fire
7 months ago
Our new shirt! store.dftba.com/products/eons-pocket-shirt The Best-Of Nature League: usa-video.net/pl/PLZftFO1i4jNijeKInnCZXTYg9l3HVlbXl The ability to make and use fire has fundamentally changed the arc of our evolution. The bodies we have today were, in many ways, shaped by that time when we first tamed fire. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-erectus humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-heidelbergensis Alperson-Afil, N. (2008). Continual fire-making by hominins at Gesher Benot Ya ‘aqov, Israel. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(17-18), 1733-1739. Barkai, R., Rosell, J., Blasco, R., & Gopher, A. (2017). Fire for a reason: Barbecue at middle Pleistocene Qesem cave, Israel. Current Anthropology, 58(S16), S314-S328. Berna, F., Goldberg, P., Horwitz, L. K., Brink, J., Holt, S., Bamford, M., & Chazan, M. (2012). Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(20), E1215-E1220. Blain, H. A., Agustí, J., Lordkipanidze, D., Rook, L., & Delfino, M. (2014). Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental context of the Early Pleistocene hominins from Dmanisi (Georgia, Lesser Caucasus) inferred from the herpetofaunal assemblage. Quaternary science reviews, 105, 136-150. Carmody, R. N., & Wrangham, R. W. (2009). The energetic significance of cooking. Journal of Human Evolution, 57(4), 379-391. Clark, J. D., & Harris, J. W. (1985). Fire and its roles in early hominid lifeways. African Archaeological Review, 3(1), 3-27. Gowlett, J. A. (2016). The discovery of fire by humans: a long and convoluted process. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371(1696), 20150164. Gowlett, J. A., & Wrangham, R. W. (2013). Earliest fire in Africa: towards the convergence of archaeological evidence and the cooking hypothesis. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 48(1), 5-30. Hlubik, S., Berna, F., Feibel, C., Braun, D., & Harris, J. W. (2017). Researching the nature of fire at 1.5 Mya on the site of FxJj20 AB, Koobi Fora, Kenya, using high-resolution spatial analysis and FTIR spectrometry. Current Anthropology, 58(S16), S243-S257. MacDonald, K. (2017). The use of fire and human distribution. Temperature, 4(2), 153-165. Pruetz, J. D., & LaDuke, T. C. (2010). Brief communication: Reaction to fire by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: Conceptualization of “fire behavior” and the case for a chimpanzee model. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: The Official Publication of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 141(4), 646-650. Roebroeks, W., & Villa, P. (2011). On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(13), 5209-5214. Zink, K. D., & Lieberman, D. E. (2016). Impact of meat and Lower Palaeolithic food processing techniques on chewing in humans. Nature, 531(7595), 500.
When Giant Scorpions Swarmed the Seas
When Giant Scorpions Swarmed the Seas
7 months ago
Try Audible for 30 days visit www.audible.com/eons or text eons to 500500! Sea scorpions thrived for 200 million years, coming in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Over time, they developed a number of adaptations--from crushing claws to flattened tails for swimming. And some of them adapted by getting so big that they still hold the record as the largest arthropods of all time. Thank you to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations: Franz Anthony: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony Ceri Thomas: alphynix.tumblr.com/ Lucas Lima: 252mya.com/gallery/lucas-lima Julio Lacerda: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Nobu Tamura: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Braddy, Simon J., Richard J. Aldridge, Sarah E. Gabbott, and Johannes N. Theron. "Lamellate book-gills in a late Ordovician eurypterid from the Soom Shale, South Africa: support for a eurypterid-scorpion clade." Lethaia 32, no. 1 (1999): 72-74. Braddy, Simon J., Markus Poschmann, and O. Erik Tetlie. "Giant claw reveals the largest ever arthropod." Biology Letters 4, no. 1 (2007): 106-109. royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsbl.2007.0491 Brezinski, David K., and Albert D. Kollar. "Reevaluation of the Age and Provenance of the Giant Palmichnium kosinskiorum Eurypterid Trackway, from Elk County, Pennsylvania." Annals of Carnegie Museum 84, no. 1 (2016): 39-45. Briggs, Derek EG, and WD Ian Rolfe. "A giant arthropod trackway from the Lower Mississippian of Pennsylvania." Journal of Paleontology (1983): 377-390. www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1304661.pdf?seq=1 Elliott, David K., and Michael A. Petriello. "New poraspids (Agnatha, Heterostraci) from the Early Devonian of the western United States." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31, no. 3 (2011): 518-530. Lamsdell, James C., and Simon J. Braddy. "Cope's Rule and Romer's theory: patterns of diversity and gigantism in eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates." Biology Letters (2009): doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0700 Lamsdell, James C., Simon J. Braddy, and O. Erik Tetlie. "Redescription of Drepanopterus abonensis (Chelicerata: Eurypterida: Stylonurina) from the Late Devonian of Portishead, UK." Palaeontology 52, no. 5 (2009): 1113-1139. Legg, David A. "Sanctacaris uncata: the oldest chelicerate (Arthropoda). "Naturwissenschaften 101, no. 12 (2014): 1065-1073. Manning, P. L. and Dunlop, J. A. “The respiratory organs of eurypterids.” Palaeontology, 38, no. 2 (1995): 287-297. McCoy, Victoria E., James C. Lamsdell, Markus Poschmann, Ross P. Anderson, and Derek EG Briggs. "All the better to see you with: eyes and claws reveal the evolution of divergent ecological roles in giant pterygotid eurypterids." Biology letters 11, no. 8 (2015): 20150564. Poschmann, Markus, Brigitte Schoenemann, and Victoria E. McCoy. "Telltale eyes: the lateral visual systems of Rhenish Lower Devonian eurypterids (Arthropoda, Chelicerata) and their palaeobiological implications." Palaeontology 59, no. 2 (2016): 295-304. Selden, P. A., and John David Lawson. "Eurypterid respiration." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 309, no. 1138 (1985): royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rstb.1985.0081 Tetlie, O. Erik. "Distribution and dispersal history of Eurypterida (Chelicerata)." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252, no. 3-4 (2007): 557-574. pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6434/bc6cdbfd7613c5dc725333a5b003975c6c50.pdf Vrazo, Matthew B., and Simon J. Braddy. "Testing the ‘mass-moult-mate’hypothesis of eurypterid palaeoecology." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 311, no. 1-2 (2011): 63-73. Whyte, Martin A. "Palaeoecology: a gigantic fossil arthropod trackway." Nature 438, no. 7068 (2005): 576.
When We First Made Tools
When We First Made Tools
8 months ago
Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons The tools made by our human ancestors may not seem like much when you compare them to the screen you’re looking at right now but their creation represents a pivotal moment in the origin of technology and in the evolution of our lineage. Thanks to Fabrizio De Rossi, Julio Lacerda and everyone else at Studio 252mya for their excellent hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, XULIN GE, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi, Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-erectus humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-heidelbergensis www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/evidence-for-meat-eating-by-early-humans-103874273 www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/a-primer-on-paleolithic-technology-83034489 www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/homo-erectus-a-bigger-smarter-97879043 www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05696-8 www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/oldest-known-stone-tools-unearthed-kenya-180955341/ anthromuseum.missouri.edu/exhibit/oldowan-and-acheulean-stone-tools De Heinzelin, J., Clark, J. D., White, T., Hart, W., Renne, P., WoldeGabriel, G., ... & Vrba, E. (1999). Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. Science, 284(5414), 625-629. Ferraro, J. V., Plummer, T. W., Pobiner, B. L., Oliver, J. S., Bishop, L. C., Braun, D. R., ... & Hertel, F. (2013). Earliest archaeological evidence of persistent hominin carnivory. PloS one, 8(4), e62174. Gabunia, L., Antón, S. C., Lordkipanidze, D., Vekua, A., Justus, A., & Swisher III, C. C. (2001). Dmanisi and dispersal. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews: Issues, News, and Reviews, 10(5), 158-170. Harmand, S., Lewis, J. E., Feibel, C. S., Lepre, C. J., Prat, S., Lenoble, A., ... & Taylor, N. (2015). 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya. Nature, 521(7552), 310. Kappelman, J. (2018). An early hominin arrival in Asia. Nature, 480. Scott, G. R., & Gibert, L. (2009). The oldest hand-axes in Europe. Nature, 461(7260), 82. Stout, D., Toth, N., Schick, K., & Chaminade, T. (2008). Neural correlates of Early Stone Age toolmaking: technology, language and cognition in human evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 363(1499), 1939-1949. Tuffreau, A., Lamotte, A., & Marcy, J. L. (1997). Land-use and site function in Acheulean complexes of the Somme Valley. World Archaeology, 29(2), 225-241. Williams-Hatala, E. M., Hatala, K. G., Gordon, M., Key, A., Kasper, M., & Kivell, T. L. (2018). The manual pressures of stone tool behaviors and their implications for the evolution of the human hand. Journal of human evolution, 119, 14-26. Zhu, Z., Dennell, R., Huang, W., Wu, Y., Qiu, S., Yang, S., ... & Ouyang, T. (2018). Hominin occupation of the Chinese Loess Plateau since about 2.1 million years ago. Nature, 559(7715), 608.
The Giant Bird That Got Lost in Time
The Giant Bird That Got Lost in Time
8 months ago
The California condor is the biggest flying bird in North America, a title that it has held since the Late Pleistocene Epoch. It's just one example of an organism that we share the planet with today that seems lost in time, out of place in our world. Thanks as always to Studio 252mya for their wonderful paleoart. You can check out more of their work here: 252mya.com Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, XULIN GE, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi, Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: bit.ly/2HdL2V7
The Island of Huge Hamsters and Giant Owls
The Island of Huge Hamsters and Giant Owls
8 months ago
Check out Sound Field: usa-video.net/c/UCvMLMyKPomE6kTTL9Kv8Iww Back in the late Miocene epoch, there was an island--or maybe a group of islands-- in the Mediterranean Sea that was populated with fantastic giant beasts. It’s a lesson in the very strange, but very real, powers of natural selection. Thank you to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations: Franz Anthony: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony Stanton Fink: www.deviantart.com/avancna Julio Lacerda: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Nobu Tamura: spinops.blogspot.com/ Ceri Thomas: alphynix.tumblr.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, XULIN GE, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi, Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: bit.ly/2VCS4WF
How 7,000 Years of Epic Floods Changed the World (w/ SciShow!)
How 7,000 Years of Epic Floods Changed the World (w/ SciShow!)
8 months ago
Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Check out SciShow's video on Lake Agassiz: usa-video.net/qMVhR26NRsk-video.html Strange geologic landmarks in the Pacific Northwest are the lingering remains of a mystery that took nearly half a century to solve. These features turned out to be a result one of the most powerful and bizarre episodes in geologic history: this region experienced dozens of major, devastating floods over the course of more than 7,000 years. Thanks to Franz Anthony and Studio 252mya for the flood and lake illustrations. You can find more of Franz's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, سلطان الخليفي, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: bit.ly/2XqRiOd
The Evolution of the Heart (A Love Story)
The Evolution of the Heart (A Love Story)
9 months ago
You can check out Google's Science Journal app at g.co/sciencejournal In order to understand where hearts came from, we have to go back to the earliest common ancestor of everything that has a heart. It took hundreds of millions of years, and countless different iterations of the same basic structure to lead to the heart that you have today. Thanks as always to Nobu Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the Ichthyostega reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, سلطان الخليفي, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5378490/ link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00018-007-6524-1 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2614224/ onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1997.tb00458.x www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3097462/ www.nature.com/articles/ncomms4560 www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/news/2014/april/earliest-heart-blood-discovered.html www.sci-news.com/paleontology/science-fossil-oldest-known-cardiovascular-system-01839.html journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0201702 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7915669 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10355031 genent.cals.ncsu.edu/bug-bytes/circulatory-system/ onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/brv.12439 www.fossilmuseum.net/Fossil_Sites/whitesea/kimberella/kimberella.htm www.tulane.edu/~bfleury/diversity/labguide/mollannel.html academic.oup.com/mollus/article-abstract/42/1/46/1240276?redirectedFrom=PDF circsystems.weebly.com/mollusca.html www.britannica.com/animal/mollusk/Evolution-and-paleontology onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joa.12687 www.thoughtco.com/evolution-of-the-human-heart-1224781 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167488912002868 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4459601/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28905992
The Island of Shrinking Mammoths
The Island of Shrinking Mammoths
9 months ago
You can check out Google's Science Journal app at g.co/sciencejournal The mammoths fossils found on the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California are much smaller than their relatives found on the mainland. They were so small that they came to be seen as their own species. How did they get there? And why were they so small? Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the mammoth reconstructions throughout this episode. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the Palaeoloxodon illustrations. You can find more of Julio's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, سلطان الخليفي, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1940&context=usgsstaffpub www.nhm-wien.ac.at/jart/prj3/nhm/data/uploads/mitarbeiter_dokumente/goehlich/2016/Semprebon_et_al_2016%20Dietary%20reconstruction%20of%20pygmy%20mammoths%20from%20Santa%20Rosa%20Island%20California.pdf www.researchgate.net/publication/288262862_A_late_Pleistocene_pollen_record_from_San_Miguel_Island_California_preliminary_results “Extreme expansion of the olfactory receptor gene repertoire in African elephants and evolutionary dynamics of orthologous gene groups in 13 placental mammals.” Niimura Y, Matsui A, Touhara K. 2014. web.archive.org/web/20060508113748/www.cq.rm.cnr.it/elephants2001/pdf/473_475.pdf www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104061821100190X kundoc.com/pdf-on-the-importance-of-stratigraphic-control-for-vertebrate-fossil-sites-in-channe.html www.app.pan.pl/archive/published/app61/app001362014.pdf www.jstor.org/stable/2844657?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.541.6488&rep=rep1&type=pdf Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands by Alexandra van der Geer, George Lyras, John de Vos and Michael Dermitzakis. Niimura Y, Matsui A, Touhara K. 2014. Extreme expansion of the olfactory receptor gene repertoire in African elephants and evolutionary dynamics of orthologous gene groups in 13 placental mammals. Genome Res doi: 10.1101/gr.169532.113 www.nhm-wien.ac.at/jart/prj3/nhm/data/uploads/mitarbeiter_dokumente/goehlich/2016/Semprebon_et_al_2016%20Dietary%20reconstruction%20of%20pygmy%20mammoths%20from%20Santa%20Rosa%20Island%20California.pdf "Sea level, paleogeography, and archeology on California's Northern Channel Islands," by Reeder-Myers et al. 2015. digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1940&context=usgsstaffpub web.archive.org/web/20060508113748/www.cq.rm.cnr.it/elephants2001/pdf/473_475.pdf citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.896.6234&rep=rep1&type=pdf kundoc.com/pdf-on-the-importance-of-stratigraphic-control-for-vertebrate-fossil-sites-in-channe.html www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104061821100190X natural-history.uoregon.edu/research/paleocoastal-research-project/santarosae-island www.nhm-wien.ac.at/jart/prj3/nhm/data/uploads/mitarbeiter_dokumente/goehlich/2016/Semprebon_et_al_2016%20Dietary%20reconstruction%20of%20pygmy%20mammoths%20from%20Santa%20Rosa%20Island%20California.pdf digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1940&context=usgsstaffpub
The Humans That Lived Before Us
The Humans That Lived Before Us
9 months ago
As more and more fossil ancestors have been found, our genus has become more and more inclusive, incorporating more members that look less like us, Homo sapiens. By getting to know these other hominins--the ones who came before us--we can start to answer some big questions about what it essentially means to be human. Thanks as always to Nobu Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the hominin illustrations. You can find more of Julio's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان , Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/australopithecus-sediba humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-rudolfensis humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-erectus humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-habilis humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/knm-er-1813 humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/knm-er-1470 humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/behavior/footprints/laetoli-footprint-trails humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/al-288-1 australianmuseum.net.au/learn/science/human-evolution/homo-ergaster/ www.earthmagazine.org/article/redefining-homo-does-our-family-tree-need-more-branches medium.com/@johnhawks/the-plot-to-kill-homo-habilis-94a33bee2adf Antón, S. C., Potts, R., & Aiello, L. C. (2014). Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective. Science, 345(6192), 1236828. Gibbons, A. (2015). Deep roots for the genus Homo. Haile-Selassie, Y., Latimer, B. M., Alene, M., Deino, A. L., Gibert, L., Melillo, S. M., ... & Lovejoy, C. O. (2010). An early Australopithecus afarensis postcranium from Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(27), 12121-12126. Leakey, L. S., Tobias, P. V., & Napier, J. R. (1964). A new species of the genus Homo from Olduvai Gorge. Schwartz, J. H., & Tattersall, I. (2015). Defining the genus Homo. Science, 349(6251), 931-932. Susman, R. L. (1994). Fossil evidence for early hominid tool use. Science, 265(5178), 1570-1573. Villmoare, B., Kimbel, W. H., Seyoum, C., Campisano, C. J., DiMaggio, E. N., Rowan, J., ... & Reed, K. E. (2015). Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia. Science, 347(6228), 1352-1355. Wood, B. (1992). Origin and evolution of the genus Homo. Nature, 355(6363), 783. Wood, B. (1999). 'Homo rudolfensis' Alexeev, 1986-fact or phantom?. Journal of human evolution, 36(1), 115. Wood, B. (2014). Human evolution: Fifty years after Homo habilis. Nature News, 508(7494), 31. Wood, B., & Collard, M. (1999). The human genus. Science, 284(5411), 65-71.
How Blood Evolved (Many Times)
How Blood Evolved (Many Times)
10 months ago
Blood is one of the most revolutionary features in our evolutionary history. Over hundreds of millions of years, the way in which blood does its job has changed over and over again. As a result, we animals have our familiar red blood. But also blue blood. And purple, and green, and even white. Thanks to Julio Lacerda, Lucas Lima, Franz Anthony of Studio 252mya for several illustrations throughout this episode. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان , Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5378490/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3097462/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17120194 www.hindawi.com/journals/ijz/2009/301284/ www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012160612006343?via%3Dihub www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookcircSYS.html citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.456.5625&rep=rep1&type=pdf books.google.com/books?id=pKlVDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA35&lpg=PA35&dq=origin+of+blood+triploblasts&source=bl&ots=OofsZKI3SN&sig=I6Y92wODJah2vWgtPShcnPtR5eI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjZ5Lmz6NveAhVPslMKHdOeCSoQ6AEwDXoECAMQAQ#v=onepage&q=origin%20of%20blood%20triploblasts&f=false thebiologyprimer.com/the-origin-and-evolution-of-animals/ www.researchgate.net/profile/Thorsten_Burmester/publication/11448732_Origin_and_evolution_of_arthropod_hemocyanins_and_related_proteins/links/558c352e08ae1f30aa809ad6.pdf courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-biology2/chapter/circulatory-system-variation-in-animals/ jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/201/8/1099.full.pdf www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3543078/ www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/physrev.2001.81.2.569?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed www.britannica.com/science/circulatory-system/The-vertebrate-circulatory-system www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/news/2014/april/earliest-heart-blood-discovered.html www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2614223/ www.nature.com/articles/ncomms4560 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1997.tb00458.x www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/10.1139/e06-012 www.britannica.com/animal/mollusk#ref35787 www.forbes.com/sites/shaenamontanari/2016/04/20/oldest-example-of-a-chambered-heart-found-in-a-113-million-year-old-fossil/#468a52b026d4 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570963913000836 www.jstor.org/stable/30158158?seq=3#metadata_info_tab_contents www.sci-news.com/paleontology/science-fossil-oldest-known-cardiovascular-system-01839.html academic.oup.com/icb/article/55/5/792/604091 www.mdpi.com/2308-3425/2/1/2/pdf
When Humans Were Prey
When Humans Were Prey
10 months ago
Not too long ago, our early human ancestors were under constant threat of attack from predators. And it turns out that this difficult chapter in our history may be responsible for the adaptations that allowed us to become so successful. Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the illustrations of the Taung Child. You can find more of Julio's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان , Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/taung-child humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/paranthropus-robustus humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/oh-8 news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4729050.stm time.com/5424347/remains-neanderthal-giant-bird-poland/ scienceinpoland.pap.pl/en/news/news%2C31287%2Cscientists-discover-oldest-human-remains-poland-they-are-over-100000-years-old.html Berger, L. R. (2006). Brief communication: Predatory bird damage to the Taung type-skull of Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: The Official Publication of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 131(2), 166-168. Berger, L. R., & Clarke, R. J. (1995). Eagle involvement in accumulation of the Taung child fauna. Journal of Human Evolution, 29(3), 275-299. Berger, L. R., & McGraw, W. S. (2007). Further evidence for eagle predation of, and feeding damage on, the Taung child. South African Journal of Science, 103(11-12), 496-498. Blumenschine, R. J., Stanistreet, I. G., Njau, J. K., Bamford, M. K., Masao, F. T., Albert, R. M., ... & Fernández-Jalvo, Y. (2012). Environments and hominin activities across the FLK Peninsula during Zinjanthropus times (1.84 Ma), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 63(2), 364-383. Brain, C. K. (1970). New finds at the Swartkrans australopithecine site. Nature, 225(5238), 1112. Brain, C. K. (1983). The hunters or the hunted?: an introduction to African cave taphonomy. University of Chicago Press. Bunn, H. T. (1991). A taphonomic perspective on the archaeology of human origins. Annual Review of Anthropology, 20(1), 433-467. Dart, R. A. (1949). The predatory implemental technique of Australopithecus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 7(1), 1-38. Dart, R. A. (1953). The predatory transition from ape to man. Brill. Dart, R. A. (1958). The Minimal Bone-Breccia Content of Makapansgat and the Australopithecine Predatory Habit. American Anthropologist, 60(5), 923-931. Hart, D. (2018). Man the hunted: Primates, predators, and human evolution. Routledge. Hart, D., & Sussman, R. W. (2011). The influence of predation on primate and early human evolution: impetus for cooperation. In Origins of Altruism and Cooperation (pp. 19-40). Springer, New York, NY. Njau, J. K., & Blumenschine, R. J. (2006). A diagnosis of crocodile feeding traces on larger mammal bone, with fossil examples from the Plio-Pleistocene Olduvai Basin, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 50(2), 142-162. Njau, J. K., & Blumenschine, R. J. (2012). Crocodylian and mammalian carnivore feeding traces on hominid fossils from FLK 22 and FLK NN 3, Plio-Pleistocene, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of human evolution, 63(2), 408-417. Pickering, T. R., Schick, K. D., & Toth, N. P. (Eds.). (2007). Breathing life into fossils: taphonomic studies in honor of CK (Bob) Brain. Gosport, IN: Stone Age Institute Press. Tobias, P. V. (1990). When and by whom was the Taung skull discovered. Para conocer al hombre: homenaje a Santiago Genovése. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma da Mexico, 207-213. Washburn, S. L. (1957). Australopithecines: the hunters or the hunted?. American Anthropologist, 59(4), 612-614. Zuberbühler, K., & Jenny, D. (2002). Leopard predation and primate evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 43(6), 873-886.
Why Megalodon (Definitely) Went Extinct
Why Megalodon (Definitely) Went Extinct
11 months ago
For more than 10 million years, Megalodon was at the top of its game as the oceans’ apex predator...until 2.6 million years ago, when it went extinct. So, what happened to the largest shark in history? Thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ And thanks to Joschua Knüppe and Studio 252mya for the illustration of Piscobalaena. You can find more of Joschua's work here: www.deviantart.com/hyrotrioskjan Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, سلطان الخليفي, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Barron3/publication/222968661_Late_Neogene_changes_in_diatom_sedimentation_in_the_North_Pacific/links/5afb194a458515c00b6d64bb/Late-Neogene-changes-in-diatom-sedimentation-in-the-North-Pacific.pdf www.researchgate.net/publication/312500230_A_well_preserved_skeleton_of_the_fossil_shark_Cosmopolitodus_hastalis_from_the_late_Miocene_of_Peru_featuring_fish_remains_as_fossilized_stomach_contents journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0010552 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01201.x www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28586693 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27381883 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4541548/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29754903 sciencepress.mnhn.fr/sites/default/files/articles/pdf/g2006n2a8.pdf www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27620830 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jbi.12754 www.nature.com/articles/nature09067 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018216305417 journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111086 science.sciencemag.org/content/327/5968/993 journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0084857 www.nature.com/articles/ngeo2813 www.researchgate.net/publication/233681377_New_fossil_teeth_of_the_White_Shark_Carcharodon_carcharias_from_the_Early_Pliocene_of_Spain_Implication_for_its_paleoecology_in_the_Mediterranean ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042397/00001
When Apes Conquered Europe
When Apes Conquered Europe
11 months ago
Check out Origin of Everything: usa-video.net/c/UCiB8h9jD2Mlxx96ZFnGDSJw Today, our closest evolutionary relatives, the apes, live only in small pockets of Africa and Asia. But back in the Miocene epoch, apes occupied all of Europe. Why aren’t there wild apes in Europe today? Special thanks to AfricanFossils.org for allowing us to use their images of Proconsul and Ekembo fossils. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, سلطان الخليفي, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: anthropology.utoronto.ca/Faculty/Begun/begunSciAm.pdf www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/effects-of-climate-change-on-primate-evolution-141807385 humanorigins.si.edu/research/climate-and-human-evolution/climate-effects-human-evolution johnhawks.net/weblog/fossils/miocene/graecopithecus/graecopithecus-fuss-2017.html news.google.com/newspapers?id=qBoqAAAAIBAJ&sjid=oyYEAAAAIBAJ&pg=2472,5867929&dq=oreopithecus&hl=en www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/human-evolutions-cookie-monster-oreopithecus-1657956/ europepmc.org/abstract/MED/14529649 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23280922 science.sciencemag.org/content/350/6260/aab2625 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28012461 www.nature.com/articles/382349a0 anthropology.utoronto.ca/Faculty/Begun/handbook.pdf anthropology.utoronto.ca/Faculty/Begun/cranial%20evid%20intell.pdf www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-23532017000700003 journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0177347 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3078397/ www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248486800719 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24242778 journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0177127 www.sajs.co.za/article/view/5149 science.sciencemag.org/content/327/5965/532 pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article/43/2/123/131763/global-perturbation-of-the-carbon-cycle-at-the pdfs.semanticscholar.org/88f2/1ff1b2196d32f1d2c90cbcc199c69e0cb4bb.pdf www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.2110/palo.2004.p04-17 sciencepress.mnhn.fr/en/periodiques/geodiversitas/29/3/analyse-de-la-micro-usure-dentaire-des-bovides-du-vallesien-miocene-superieur-de-la-vallee-de-l-axios-en-grece-reconstitution-de-l-habitat-d-ouranopithecus-macedoniensis-primates-hominoidea www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248415000767 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26932906 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12069506 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248411002144 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23473739 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11333976
When Sharks Swam the Great Plains
When Sharks Swam the Great Plains
11 months ago
Check out Origin of Everything: usa-video.net/c/UCiB8h9jD2Mlxx96ZFnGDSJw If you’ve ever been to, or lived in, or even flown over the central swath of North America, then you’ve seen the remnants of what was a uniquely fascinating environment. Scientists call it the Western Interior Seaway, and at its greatest extent, it ran from the Caribbean Sea to the Canadian Arctic. Thanks to Dmitry Bogdanov, Nobu Tamura, C.R. Scotese, NASA and the many others listed throughout the video for making their images available to use. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, سلطان الخليفي, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Oceans of Kansas: A Natural History of the Western Interior Seaway (Second Edition) by Michael J. Everhart. www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2014.838573?journalCode=ujvp20#.U8BQ-61OURY www.researchgate.net/publication/259517413_Cretaceous_Eustasy_Revisited www.researchgate.net/profile/Joshua_Slattery/publication/280641436_EARLY_CRETACEOUS_TO_PALEOCENE_PALEOGEOGRAPHY_OF_THE_WESTERN_INTERIOR_SEAWAY_THE_INTERACTION_OF_EUSTASY_AND_TECTONISM/links/55c0927208aed621de13c50d/EARLY-CRETACEOUS-TO-PALEOCENE-PALEOGEOGRAPHY-OF-THE-WESTERN-INTERIOR-SEAWAY-THE-INTERACTION-OF-EUSTASY-AND-TECTONISM.pdf www.researchgate.net/publication/321632109_The_Late_Cretaceous_Western_Interior_Seaway_as_a_model_for_oxygenation_change_in_epicontinental_restricted_basins www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2011.601714 www.jstor.org/stable/1306568 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/003101829090110S pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/pp1561 rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/278/1706/681.short link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02990187 pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/44/11/903/195080/temperature-and-salinity-of-the-late-cretaceous?redirectedFrom=fulltext www.rushcounty.org/PostRockMuseum/PostRockMuseum2.htm
How Sloths Went From the Seas to the Trees
How Sloths Went From the Seas to the Trees
11 months ago
The story of sloths is one of astounding ecological variability, with some foraging in the seas, others living underground, and others still hiding from predators in towering cliffs. So why are their only living relatives in the trees? Thanks to Ceri Thomas for allowing us to use few sloth reconstructions! Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com And thanks as always to Franz Anthony and everyone at 252mya.com for their great paleoart. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10722-007-9250-5 www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00438243.2012.646145 www.pnas.org/content/102/33/11763 www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-paleontology/article/increased-xenarthran-diversity-of-the-great-american-biotic-interchange-a-new-genus-and-species-of-ground-sloth-mammalia-xenarthra-megalonychidae-from-the-hemphillian-late-miocene-of-jalisco-mexico/00EA80D119B2FE221240A3EB67F954AA www.jstor.org/stable/2400207 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00240.x www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10420940.2016.1223654 palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/189/index.html link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10914-017-9415-8 eurekamag.com/research/020/408/020408865.php www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1671/2429b link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10914-014-9268-3 link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10914-014-9280-7 link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10914-014-9274-5 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3973278/ www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1671/0272-4634(2008)28%5B918:TASTMX%5D2.0.CO%3B2 academic.oup.com/zoolinnean/article/140/2/255/2624254 link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10914-011-9174-x www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25861559 peerj.com/articles/5600/ www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1671/0272-4634(2000)020%5B0601%3ALBPSAD%5D2.0.CO%3B2 www.researchgate.net/publication/233548931_Diet_and_isotopes_of_Late_Pleistocene_ground_sloths_first_results_for_Lestodon_and_Glossotherium_Xenarthra_Tardigrada
When Camels Roamed North America
When Camels Roamed North America
Year ago
Camels are famous for adaptations that have allowed them to flourish where most other large mammals would perish. But their story begins over 40 million years ago in North America, and in an environment you’d never expect: a rainforest. Special thanks to Julio Lacerda, WillemSvdMerwe, and Ryan Somma for allowing us to use their images in this episode! Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1304168.pdf repository.si.edu/handle/10088/1979 books.google.com/books?id=I-RgojcDyWYC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=camel&f=false onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2052.2008.01848.x www.jstor.org/stable/4524199 books.google.com/books?id=DWtCw6-AxA8C&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=camel&source=bl&ots=gUrNWj3psO&sig=YpvjEov5zpTUcSbrZFfDkoTrhFo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj_5siqvJreAhVMIDQIHSkpCaEQ6AEwC3oECAQQAQ#v=onepage&q=camel&f=false play.google.com/books/reader?id=NGFaAAAAYAAJ&hl=en&pg=GBS.PA110 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/003101827990141X link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12052-009-0136-1 www.nature.com/articles/ncomms2516.pdf www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018210003202 pdfs.semanticscholar.org/966f/07eaaa19190b2a5db86657bfb00764d8c463.pdf#page=76 www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2015/03/18/1420650112.full.pdf paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=42514&is_real_user=1
When Birds Stopped Flying
When Birds Stopped Flying
Year ago
Support us on Patreon! patreon.com/eons Ratites have spread to Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and South America. And there are fossils of Ratites in Europe, Asia, and North America too. That’s a lot of ground to cover for birds that can’t fly. So how did Ratites end up all over the world? Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the Lithornithid reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com Thanks as always to Nobu Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/03/14/1314972111 researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz/handle/10289/5990 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379109003953 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X09011550 journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0016670 www.researchgate.net/publication/228865624_New_fossil_ratite_Aves_Palaeognathae_eggshell_discoveries_from_the_Late_Miocene_Baynunah_Formation_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates_Arabian_Peninsula www.jstor.org/stable/3545707 www.pnas.org/content/115/7/1546 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.01923.x www.nature.com/articles/nature01871 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2791642/ www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379110002246 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1810089/ science.sciencemag.org/content/324/5923/42 www.nature.com/articles/nature01838 academic.oup.com/biolinnean/article/112/4/688/2415821 digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/5660 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02390.x science.sciencemag.org/content/344/6186/898.full rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1672/3395 digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/77117 www.pnas.org/content/110/42/16910 dspace.flinders.edu.au/xmlui/handle/2328/35951 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27989673 www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02724634.2015.1031345 www.notornis.osnz.org.nz/notes-weight-flying-ability-habitat-and-prey-haasts-eagle-harpagornis-moorei www.jstor.org/stable/2462941 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jmor.1052130108
When Rodents Rafted Across the Ocean
When Rodents Rafted Across the Ocean
Year ago
Support us on Patreon! patreon.com/eons The best evidence we have suggests that, while Caviomorpha originated in South America, they came from ancestors in Africa, over 40 million years ago. So how did they get there? This episode was written by Genevieve Perdue. Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the Josephoartigasia monesi reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: academic.oup.com/biolinnean/article/121/4/907/3095993 link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11692-015-9326-7 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993503 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/003101829190073Z rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1646/1957 www.researchgate.net/publication/316684055_Late_middle_Eocene_caviomorph_rodents_from_Contamana_Peruvian_Amazonia onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/evan.1360040605 www.nature.com/articles/26886 journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0036299 books.google.com/books/about/Mammals_of_the_Neotropics_Volume_3.html?id=p2MDAzCeQQoC scinapse.io/papers/2167227626 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21238387 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jmor.20495 science.sciencemag.org/content/323/5915/732 www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/the-molecular-clock-and-estimating-species-divergence-41971 link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-9063-3_11 www.jstor.org/stable/2999827 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10423268 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9781444318777 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11476632 Lavocat, R. “La syste´matique des rongeurs hystricomorphes et la de´rive des continents.” Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Series D 269 (1969). link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-3764-5_17 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jeb.12937 www.researchgate.net/publication/256415173_Patterns_of_diversity_and_adaptation_in_South_American_hystricognath_rodents www.researchgate.net/publication/263582456_A_new_and_primitive_species_of_Protophiomys_Rodentia_Hystricognathi_from_the_late_middle_Eocene_of_Djebel_El_Kebar_Central_Tunisia www.jstor.org/stable/2401146 Merali, Z., and B.J. Skinner. Visualizing Earth Science (2009). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1646/1953 academic.oup.com/jmammal/article/91/1/11/831625 Mones, A., and J. Ojasti. “Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris.” Mammalian Species 264(1986). www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S161650470800092X Morrison, M.L., Marcot, B.G., and R.W. Mannan. Wildlife-Habitat Relationships: Concepts and Applications, 3rd ed. (2006). Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Nowak, R. M. Walker’s mammals of the world, 5th ed. (1991). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/8/e1600883 www.researchgate.net/publication/299560709_LARGE-SCALE_RICHNESS_PATTERNS_BIOGEOGRAPHY_AND_ECOLOGICAL_DIVER-_SIFICATION_IN_CAVIOMORPH_RODENTS scinapse.io/papers/184792926 Patton, J. L., Pardiñas, U. F. J., and G. D’Elía. Mammals of South America, Vol. 2, Rodents (2015). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16551580 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2599941/ www.jstor.org/stable/25654250 Scotese, C.R. “A Continental Drift Flipbook.” The Journal of Geology 112.6 (2004). Simpson, G.G. 1940. “Mammals and land bridges.” Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 30 (1940). www.researchgate.net/publication/282577627_Evolution_of_the_caviomorph_rodents_a_complete_phylogeny_and_timetree_of_living_genera
The Two People We're All Related To
The Two People We're All Related To
Year ago
Check out Two Cents: usa-video.net/c/UCL8w_A8p8P1HWI3k6PR5Z6w Due to an odd quirk of genetics and some unique evolutionary circumstances, two humans who lived at different times in the distant past managed to pass on a very small fraction of their genomes to you. And to me. To all of us. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao. Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334592/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267120/ pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f4ee/6bfac21f39ac51fc306ba3100c2ebd2ee61a.pdf www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5892150/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4032117/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5500864/ haplogroup-a.com/Ancient-Root-AJHG2013.pdf www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5418327/ ase.tufts.edu/chemistry/hhmi/documents/Protocols/Maternal%20Ancestry_Introduction_Reworked_Aug_25_2011.pdf pages.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/resources/clarifications/MitochondrialEve.html www.cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0960-9822%2813%2900215-7 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367903/ www.cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0002-9297%2809%2900163-3 www.newscientist.com/article/mg22429904-500-found-closest-link-to-eve-our-universal-ancestor/ www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/no-mitochondrial-eve-not-first-female-species-180959593/ www.nature.com/news/genetic-adam-and-eve-did-not-live-too-far-apart-in-time-1.13478 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5525259/ www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution-y-chromosome www.pnas.org/content/106/38/16018 www.nature.com/articles/jhg2012154 academic.oup.com/mbe/article/27/8/1833/988857 www.nature.com/articles/325031a0 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2694979/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4381518/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28086175
Your Place in the Primate Family Tree
Your Place in the Primate Family Tree
Year ago
Our new sticker is available here: store.dftba.com/collections/eons And check out Tacos of Texas!: usa-video.net/pl/PLh_qdzak59m68-i4M441Rkr5j8c_mQ-en Purgatorius, a kind of mammal called a plesiadapiform, might’ve been one of your earliest ancestors. But how did we get from a mouse-sized creature that looked more like a squirrel than a monkey -- to you, a member of Homo sapiens? Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the Purgatorius reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao. Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/clad/clad1.html www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/the-molecular-clock-and-estimating-species-divergence-41971 www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/overview-of-hominin-evolution-89010983 www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/hominoid-origins-135874580 evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/phylogenetics_08 www.amnh.org/explore/news-blogs/news-posts/darwin-s-evolutionary-trees humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/genetics users.tamuk.edu/kfjab02/Biology/Mammalogy/systematics/A5primates.htm askananthropologist.asu.edu/stories/our-primate-heritage www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/characteristics-of-crown-primates-105284416 pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/black_spider_monkey www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/primate-origins-and-the-plesiadapiforms-106236783 animaldiversity.org/accounts/Hominidae/ www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/hominin-taxonomy-and-phylogeny-what-s-in-142102877 www.sciencemag.org/news/2012/08/generation-gaps-suggest-ancient-human-ape-split www.eva.mpg.de/3chimps/files/apes.htm www.nature.com/news/dna-mutation-clock-proves-tough-to-set-1.17079#/b2 www.pnas.org/content/112/5/1487 Collard, M., & Wood, B. (2013). Defining the genus Homo. Handbook of Paleoanthropology: Vol I: Principles, Methods and Approaches Vol II: Primate Evolution and Human Origins Vol III: Phylogeny of Hominids, 1-31. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12644563 www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0020813.html www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29109469 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29342307 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.1330400309 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4964406 www.nature.com/articles/nature10842 academic.oup.com/mbe/article-abstract/20/10/1620/1164065 science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6251/931 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28429568 www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-earth-063016-015637 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/evan.20177 science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6228/1352 www.nature.com/articles/nature09094
When Giant Amphibians Reigned
When Giant Amphibians Reigned
Year ago
Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Temnospondyls were a huge group of amphibians that existed for 210 million years. And calling them ‘diverse’ would be putting it mildly. Yet in the end, two major threats would push them to extinction: the always-changing climate and the amniote egg. Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the very cool Temnospondyl reconstructions throughout this episode. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao. Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Gaining Ground: The Origin and Evolution of Tetrapods, Second Edition by Jennifer A. Clack. The Rise of Amphibians: 365 Million Years of Evolution by Robert Carroll. Amphibian Evolution: The Life of Early Land Vertebrates by Rainer R. Schoch. Earth Before the Dinosaurs by Sebastian Steyer. How Vertebrates Left the Water by Michel Laurin. The Late Triassic World: Earth in a Time of Transition, edited by Lawrence H. Tanner. The Story of Life in 25 Fossils: Tales of Intrepid Explorers and the Wonders of Evolution by Donald R. Prothero. rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/281/1781/20132689 academic.oup.com/zoolinnean/article/150/4/815/2630857 www.researchgate.net/publication/256496340_The_functional_morphology_of_dermal_bone_ornamentation_in_temnospondyl_amphibians “Fishes and Amphibians From the Late Permian Pedra De Fogo Formation of Northern Brazil” by Cox and Barry, 1991. www.jstor.org/stable/4524569 “Lower Triassic Temnospondyli of Tasmania” by Cogsgriff, 1974. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2011.02338.x www.researchgate.net/publication/281863720_CARBONIFEROUS-PERMIAN_TRANSITION_IN_CANON_DEL_COBRE_NORTHERN_NEW_MEXICO_AN_OVERVIEW www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2014.912988?journalCode=ujvp20 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00683.x
Can We Get DNA From Fossils?
Can We Get DNA From Fossils?
Year ago
In 1993, scientists cracked open a piece of amber, took out the body of an ancient weevil, and sampled its DNA. Or, at least, so we thought. It took another few decades of research, and a lot of take-backs, before scientists could figure out how we could truly unlock the genetic secrets of the past. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao. Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0170940 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28486705 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1755-0998.12911 www.nature.com/articles/nature13408 www.nature.com/articles/nature10574 www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/0013-8746%282004%29097%5B0882%3ATEFMDC%5D2.0.CO%3B2 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989198 www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/pjab1977/65/10/65_10_229/_article rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/264/1381/467 www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/20548923.2016.1258824 blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/jurassic-park-and-the-race-for-ancient-dna/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1684053 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14711425 www.nature.com/articles/362709a0 pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article/44/8/615/188189/fossil-dna-persistence-and-decay-in-marine www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055061 www.nature.com/articles/363536a0 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2694912/
Did Raptorex Really Exist?
Did Raptorex Really Exist?
Year ago
Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Paleontologists have been studying and drawing totally different conclusions about the fossil LH PV18 for almost a decade. Is it just one of many specimens of a theropod called Tarbosaurus bataar or is it an entirely different theropod named Raptorex kriegsteini? In order to answer this question, you have to understand the many ways in which we can--and can’t--determine the age of a fossil. Thanks to Gregory S. Paul for allowing us to use his illustrations in this video. Check out his website here: gspauldino.com/ And thanks as always to Nobu Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.radiocarbon.com/about-carbon-dating.htm www.nature.com/articles/srep20252 www.researchgate.net/publication/288175395_Spore-pollen_flora_as_the_indicator_of_paleoclimate_condition_in_the_Yixian_Formation_western_Liaoning_Province onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1502-3931.2011.00284.x link.springer.com/article/10.1360/02tb9031 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667105000662 journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0021376 science.sciencemag.org/content/326/5951/418 www.jstor.org/stable/3515101
When We First Walked
When We First Walked
Year ago
Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Fossilized footprints have proved that human ancestors were already striding across the landscape 3.6 million years ago. But who started them on that path? What species pioneered this style of locomotion? Who was the first to walk? Check out our new sticker! store.dftba.com/collections/all/products/eons-sticker-decal Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/behavior/footprints/laetoli-footprint-trails www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/becoming-human-the-evolution-of-walking-upright-13837658/ www.nature.com/news/2007/070716/full/news070716-2.html Dericquebourg, P., Person, A., Ségalen, L., Pickford, M., Senut, B., & Fagel, N. (2015). Environmental significance of Upper Miocene phosphorites at hominid sites in the Lukeino Formation (Tugen Hills, Kenya). Sedimentary Geology, 327, 43-54. Thorpe, S. K., McClymont, J. M., & Crompton, R. H. (2014). The arboreal origins of human bipedalism. Antiquity, 88(341), 906-914. Harcourt-Smith, W. H. (2010). The first hominins and the origins of bipedalism. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 3(3), 333-340. Brunet, M., Guy, F., Pilbeam, D., Lieberman, D. E., Likius, A., Mackaye, H. T., ... & Vignaud, P. (2005). New material of the earliest hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad. Nature, 434(7034), 752. Richmond, B. G., & Jungers, W. L. (2008). Orrorin tugenensis femoral morphology and the evolution of hominin bipedalism. Science, 319(5870), 1662-1665. Begun, D. R. (2004). The earliest hominins--is less more?. Science, 303(5663), 1478-1480. Lovejoy, C. O., Latimer, B., Suwa, G., Asfaw, B., & White, T. D. (2009). Combining prehension and propulsion: the foot of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science, 326(5949), 72-72e8. Lovejoy, C. O., Suwa, G., Spurlock, L., Asfaw, B., & White, T. D. (2009). The pelvis and femur of Ardipithecus ramidus: the emergence of upright walking. Science, 326(5949), 71-71e6. White, T. D., Suwa, G., & Asfaw, B. (1994). Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature, 371(6495), 306. Leakey, M. G., Feibel, C. S., McDougall, I., & Walker, A. (1995). New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya. Nature, 376(6541), 565. White, T. D., WoldeGabriel, G., Asfaw, B., Ambrose, S., Beyene, Y., Bernor, R. L., ... & Hart, W. K. (2006). Asa Issie, Aramis and the origin of Australopithecus. Nature, 440(7086), 883. Masao, F. T., Ichumbaki, E. B., Cherin, M., Barili, A., Boschian, G., Iurino, D. A., ... & Manzi, G. (2016). New footprints from Laetoli (Tanzania) provide evidence for marked body size variation in early hominins. elife, 5, e19568. Almécija, S., Tallman, M., Alba, D. M., Pina, M., Moyà-Solà, S., & Jungers, W. L. (2013). The femur of Orrorin tugenensis exhibits morphometric affinities with both Miocene apes and later hominins. Nature Communications, 4, 2888.
Life, Sex & Death Among the Dire Wolves
Life, Sex & Death Among the Dire Wolves
Year ago
This is not a Game of Thrones fan fiction episode. Dire wolves were real! And thousands of them died in the same spot in California. Their remains have taught us volumes about how they lived, hunted, died and way more about any animal’s sex life than you’d ever want to know. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.researchgate.net/publication/314984082_Posttraumatic_chronic_osteomyeltis_in_Stegosaurus_dermal_spikes www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618215002499 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/1099-1212%28200011/12%2910%3A6%3C447%3A%3AAID-OA532%3E3.0.CO%3B2-W pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046371 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018203007739 digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/5999 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1502-3885.1999.tb00227.x rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1844/20161736 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618209002419 www.pnas.org/content/109/11/4191 www.jstor.org/stable/4524203 www.jstor.org/stable/4524553 zslpublications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00043.x onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jeb.12340 www.researchgate.net/publication/282253545_Dental_Microwear_Textures_of_Carnivorans_from_the_La_Brea_Tar_Pits_California_and_Potential_Extinction_Implications www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0131 nhm.org/site/sites/default/files/pdf/contrib_science/lacm-42.pdf onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2008.01108.x www.jstor.org/stable/4096974 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18957359
The Rise and Fall of the Bone-Crushing Dogs
The Rise and Fall of the Bone-Crushing Dogs
Year ago
You can go to wix.com/go/eons to get started on your website! A huge and diverse subfamily of dogs, the bone-crushers patrolled North America for more than thirty million years, before they disappeared in the not-too-distant past. So what happened to the biggest dogs that ever lived? Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Kelby Reid, Steph Summerfield, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History by Xiaoming Wang & Richard H. Tedford. The Princeton Field Guide to Prehistoric Mammals by Donald Prothero. Evolution of Tertiary Mammals in North America, Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals edited by Christine M. Janis. The Skeleton of the Borophaginae (Carnivora, Canidae): Morphology and Function by Kathleen Munthe. Vertebrates: Structures and Functions by S.M. Kisia. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4507235/ digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/447/B279a07.pdf?sequence=20 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5936914/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26285033 www.researchgate.net/publication/267156822_Phylogenetic_systematics_of_the_Borophaginae_Carnivora_Canidae?enrichId=rgreq-d5b9b9334f3e7d5206bb87428d1dc7db-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI2NzE1NjgyMjtBUzoxNTQ5NTc4MzE0NzkyOTZAMTQxMzk1NjIzNDUyOA%3D%3D&el=1_x_2&_esc=publicationCoverPdf www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963924/ www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-paleontology/article/borophagine-canid-carnivora-canidae-borophaginae-from-the-middle-miocene-chesapeake-group-of-eastern-north-america/FBD12E2AB04E6AADB367A0FE36C4A3D9 www.naturalhistorymag.com/htmlsite/0708/0708_feature.html
How a Supervolcano Made the Cenozoic’s Coolest Fossils
How a Supervolcano Made the Cenozoic’s Coolest Fossils
Year ago
One of the most dynamic, transformative, and potentially dangerous features in North America is also responsible for some of the continent’s most amazing fossil deposits. It’s a supervolcano we now call Yellowstone. Thanks to Rick Otto and the Ashfall Fossil Beds State Historical Park for their help with this episode! Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Kelby Reid, Steph Summerfield, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.researchgate.net/publication/300919200_The_geology_and_paleontology_of_Ashfall_Fossil_Beds_a_late_Miocene_Clarendonian_mass-death_assemblage_Antelope_County_and_adjacent_Knox_County_Nebraska_USA www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/587650 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14711425 agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2013JB010483 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1684053 agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/92GL00703 volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/yellowstone/yellowstone_sub_page_54.html www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/files/1013/9447/0047/bulletin-Mihlbachlerlowres.pdf peerj.com/articles/4880/ journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0044205 www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-secrets-of-supervolca-2006-06/ link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00445-007-0140-7 pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70117448 www.frontiersin.org/articles/120148 www.researchgate.net/publication/280296629_An_introduction_to_the_stratigraphy_structural_geology_and_hydrogeology_of_the_Columbia_River_Flood-Basalt_Province_A_primer_for_the_GSA_Columbia_River_Basalt_Group_field_trips volcano.oregonstate.edu/columbia-river-flood-basalts www.researchgate.net/publication/298429576_Volcanic_Ash_Layers_in_the_Miocene_Lake_Clarkia_Beds_Geochemistry_Regional_Correlation_and_Age_of_the_Clarkia_Flora pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/gsabulletin/article/62/8/907/4450/mold-of-a-rhinoceros-in-basalt-lower-grand-coulee Mustoe, George. “Washington’s Fossil Forests.” 2001 www.dnr.wa.gov/Publications/ger_washington_geology_1988_v16_no4.pdf
How Horses Took Over North America (Twice)
How Horses Took Over North America (Twice)
Year ago
The PBSDS Annual Audience Survey: to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey The ancestors of modern horses became so successful that they spread all over the world, to Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. But in their native range of North America, they’ll vanish for 10,000 years. Until another strange mammal brings them back. The illustration of Equus Simplicidens--also known as the Hagerman Horse--is by Roger Hall. You can check out more of Roger's work at InkArt.net Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Kelby Reid, Steph Summerfield, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Fossil Horses by Bruce J. MacFadden www.ajsonline.org/content/s3-12/71/401.extract www.jstor.org/stable/4522989?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents chem.tufts.edu/science/evolution/horseevolution.htm www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/fhc/firstCM.htm link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12052-012-0394-1 www.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/features/environment/wild-horses-part-one/ www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440313000241 www.palass.org/publications/palaeontology-journal/archive/39/3/article_pp663-680 www.nature.com/articles/nature02098 www.nature.com/articles/nature04604 digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/1476//v2/dspace/ingest/pdfSource/bul/B022a22.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y projects.iq.harvard.edu/spierce/news/going-monodactyl www.geolsoc.org.uk/Geoscientist/Archive/June-2014/The-Arctic-Azolla-event facstaff.uwa.edu/jmccall/Evolution%20of%20the%20Horse.htm
When Birds Had Teeth
When Birds Had Teeth
Year ago
Check out ReInventors: usa-video.net/c/UCzZRoStdiqWxauQT2RGW1Lg Experts are still arguing over whether Archaeopteryx was a true bird, or a paravian dinosaur, or some other kind of dino. But regardless of what side you’re on, how did this fascinating, bird-like animal relate to today’s birds? It turns out its teeth were a clue that this story goes all the way back to what we now call the non-avian dinosaurs. Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the excellent Longipteryx reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Kelby Reid, Steph Summerfield, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: doi:10.2475/ajs.s3-14.83.337 digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/3223/?sequence=1 Bakker RT. 1986. The Dinosaur Heresies. Zebra Books, New York. 481 pp. ISBN: 0806522607 paleoglot.org/files/Ji&Ji_96.pdf doi:10.1038/scientificamericandinosaurs0514-76 Martyniuk, MP. 2012. A Field Guide to Mesozoic Birds and Other Winged DInosaurs. Pan Aves, Vernon, NJ. 191 pp. ISBN-13: 978-0-9885965-0-4 Baby enantiornithine: doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2017.06.001 Enantiornithine wings: www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12089 Baby dinosaur tail: doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.008 doi.org/10.1002/jgrg.20018 doi.org/10.1029/2001JE001532 doi.org/10.1130/B25402.1 www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(16)30249-4 www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(18)30534-7 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534711002643#fig0020
When Fish Wore Armor
When Fish Wore Armor
Year ago
Check out Hot Mess: usa-video.net/c/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw 420 million years ago, some fish were more medieval. They wore armor, sometimes made of big plates, and sometimes made of interlocking scales. But that armor may actually have served a totally different purpose, one that many animals still use today. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Dave, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, phil parker, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Katie Fichtner, Budjarn Lambeth, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan, Jordon Sokoll If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Sim, Min Sub, Shuhei Ono, and Matthew T. Hurtgen. "Sulfur isotope evidence for low and fluctuating sulfate levels in the Late Devonian ocean and the potential link with the mass extinction event." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 419 (2015): 52-62. Sallan, Lauren, and Andrew K. Galimberti. "Body-size reduction in vertebrates following the end-Devonian mass extinction." Science 350.6262 (2015): 812-815. Afanassieva, O. B. "On the growth and regeneration of the exoskeleton in early jawless vertebrates (Osteostraci, Agnatha)." Doklady Biological Sciences. Vol. 466. No. 1. Pleiades Publishing, 2016. Anderson, Philip SL, and Mark W. Westneat. "Feeding mechanics and bite force modelling of the skull of Dunkleosteus terrelli, an ancient apex predator." Biology Letters 3.1 (2007): 77-80. rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/1/77.short Arsenault, Marius, et al. "New data on the soft tissues and external morphology of the antiarch Bothriolepis canadensis (Whiteaves, 1880), from the Upper Devonian of Miguasha, Quebec." Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München (2004): 439-454. www.pfeil-verlag.de/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/3_52d20.pdf Brazeau, Martin D., and Matt Friedman. "The origin and early phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates." Nature 520.7548 (2015): 490. Brett, Carlton E., and Sally E. Walker. "Predators and predation in Paleozoic marine environments." The Paleontological Society Papers 8 (2002): 93-118. www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-paleontological-society-papers/article/predators-and-predation-in-paleozoic-marine-environments/DFEC6AE2E6493B351AEA2FFE90871469 Carr, ROBERT K. "Paleoecology of Dunkleosteus terrelli (Placodermi: Arthrodira)." KirtlandIa, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History 57 (2010): 36-55. Carr, Robert, K. "Placoderm diversity and evolution." Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle: Sciences de la terre, paléontologie, géologie, minéralogie. Section C 17 (1995): 85. www.researchgate.net/profile/Robert_Carr2/publication/235924324_Placoderm_diversity_and_evolution/links/00463514388def2cea000000.pdf Chevrinais, Marion, Claire Jacquet, and Richard Cloutier. "Early establishment of vertebrate trophic interactions: Food web structure in Middle to Late Devonian fish assemblages with exceptional fossilization." Bulletin of Geosciences 92.4 (2017): 491-510. De Vleeschouwer, David, et al. "Timing and pacing of the Late Devonian mass extinction event regulated by eccentricity and obliquity." Nature communications 8.1 (2017): 2268. www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02407-1 Denison, Robert H. "The soft anatomy of Bothriolepis." Journal of Paleontology (1941): 553-561. www.jstor.org/stable/1298812 Doherty, Alison H., Cameron K. Ghalambor, and Seth W. Donahue. "Evolutionary physiology of bone: bone metabolism in changing environments." Physiology 30.1 (2015): 17-29. Donoghue, Philip CJ, and Ivan J. Sansom. "Origin and early evolution of vertebrate skeletonization." Microscopy research and technique 59.5 (2002): 352-372. Giles, Sam, Matt Friedman, and Martin D. Brazeau. "Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in an Early Devonian stem gnathostome." Nature 520.7545 (2015): 82. www.nature.com/articles/nature14065 We've hit USa-video's description character limit so you can find all references we used in this video here: pastebin.com/raw/XkhEwmyU
The Mystery of the Eocene’s Lethal Lake
The Mystery of the Eocene’s Lethal Lake
Year ago
Check out America from Scratch: usa-video.net/u/americafromscratch In 1800s, miners began working in exposed deposits of mud near the town of Messel, Germany. They were extracting oil from the rock and along with the oil, they found beautifully preserved fossils of animals from the Eocene. What happened to these Eocene animals? And why were their remains so exquisitely preserved? Two additional notes! -At 00:56, we incorrectly labelled a Darwinius fossil as Thaumaturus. Thaumaturus was a fish and the fossil we show is definitely not a fish. -Also, an additional image credit is required: Dmitry Bogdanov illustrated the fish we used to show scavengers. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Dave, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, phil parker, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Katie Fichtner, Budjarn Lambeth, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan, Jordon Sokoll If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Kling, George W., et al. "The 1986 lake nyos gas disaster in cameroon, west Africa." Science 236.4798 (1987): 169-175. Vaselli, Orlando, et al. "The “evil’s winds”(mazukus) at Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo)." Acta Vulcanol 2003 (2002): 14-15. Zhang, Youxue. "Dynamics of CO2-driven lake eruptions." Nature 379.6560 (1996): 57. Storch, Gerhard, Bernard Sigé, and Jörg Habersetzer. "Tachypteron franzeni n. gen., n. sp., earliest emballonurid bat from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Mammalia, Chiroptera)." Paläontologische Zeitschrift 76.2 (2002): 189-199. Franzen, Jens Lorenz, Christine Aurich, and Jörg Habersetzer. "Description of a well preserved fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis." PloS one 10.10 (2015): e0137985. Franzen, J. L. "Exceptional preservation of Eocene vertebrates in the lake deposit of Grube Messel (West Germany)." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 311.1148 (1985): 181-186. Lenz, Olaf K., et al. "New palynology-based astronomical and revised 40 Ar/39 Ar ages for the Eocene maar lake of Messel (Germany)." International Journal of Earth Sciences 104.3 (2015): 873-889. Joyce, Walter G., et al. "Caught in the act: the first record of copulating fossil vertebrates." Biology Letters 8.5 (2012): 846-848. Vitek, Natasha S., et al. "Exceptional three-dimensional preservation and coloration of an originally iridescent fossil feather from the Middle Eocene Messel Oil Shale." Paläontologische Zeitschrift 87.4 (2013): 493-503. whc.unesco.org/en/list/720 Koenigswald, Wighart V., Andreas Braun, and Thekla Pfeiffer. "Cyanobacteria and seasonal death: a new taphonomic model for the Eocene Messel lake." Paläontologische Zeitschrift 78.2 (2004): 417-424. Pirrung, Michael, G. Buchel, and Wolfgang Jacoby. "The Tertiary volcanic basins of Eckfeld, Enspel and Messel (Germany)." ZEITSCHRIFT-DEUTSCHEN GEOLOGISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT 152.1 (2001): 27-60. Franzen, Jens L., et al. "Complete primate skeleton from the middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology." PLoS one 4.5 (2009): e5723.
When Insects First Flew
When Insects First Flew
Year ago
Insects were the first animals to ever develop the ability to fly, and, arguably, they did it the best. But this development was so unusual that scientists are still/working on, and arguing about, how and when insect wings first came about. Special thanks to Franz Anthony for the beautiful insect reconstructions. You can see more of Franz's tremendous work at 252mya.com Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution: science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6210/763 Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Dave, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, phil parker, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Katie Fichtner, Budjarn Lambeth, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan, Jordon Sokoll If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(16)31461-0.pdf www.nature.com/articles/nature12629 science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6210/763 science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6247/487.2.full www.nytimes.com/2018/03/26/science/insect-wing-evolution.html www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096098221631346X phys.org/news/2012-08-humble-bug-gap-fossil.html www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23426326/ livingwithinsects.wordpress.com/2014/09/04/the-hexapoda-gap/ www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(15)00927-6.pdf www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5452959/ www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/collembolan.htm www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/the-molecular-clock-and-estimating-species-divergence-41971
FAQs From Our First Year
FAQs From Our First Year
Year ago
Over the first season of PBS Eons, we’ve explored the history of Earth from the very origins of life right up to the Cenozoic Era that we’re in now. To celebrate our first anniversary together, we’d like to answer some of your most frequently asked questions. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Dave, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, phil parker, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Katie Fichtner, Budjarn Lambeth, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan, Jordon Sokoll If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.nature.com/articles/nature24679 www.researchgate.net/publication/265553416_Semiaquatic_adaptations_in_a_giant_predatory_dinosaur?enrichId=rgreq-d298c20fbadcb0c1e9961c1c4f7d401f-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI2NTU1MzQxNjtBUzoxNTgyODkzNTQ1Njc2ODBAMTQxNDc1MDUzMTMyNw%3D%3D&el=1_x_3&_esc=publicationCoverPdf www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/03/saga-of-the-spinosaurus/476286/ quaternary.stratigraphy.org/workinggroups/anthropocene/ www.igbp.net/download/18.316f18321323470177580001401/1376383088452/NL41.pdf www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618214009136 www.pnas.org/content/pnas/113/15/3908.full.pdf
Eons 1-Year Birthday Livestream!!!!
Eons 1-Year Birthday Livestream!!!!
Year ago
Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Addison Baker, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Southpoint, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Dave, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Mario Morales, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, phil parker, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Katie Fichtner, Budjarn Lambeth, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan, Jordon Sokoll If you'd like to support the channel, head over to patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References:
How the T-Rex Lost Its Arms
How the T-Rex Lost Its Arms
Year ago
Support us on Patreon! patreon.com/eons Tyrannosaurus rex was big, Tyrannosaurus rex was vicious, and Tyrannosaurus rex had tiny arms. The story of how T-Rex lost its arms is, itself, pretty simple. But the story of why it kept those little limbs, and how it used them? Well, that’s a little more complicated. Thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Addison Baker, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Southpoint, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Dave, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Mario Morales, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, phil parker, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Katie Fichtner, Budjarn Lambeth, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan, Jordon Sokoll Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Baron, Matthew G., David B. Norman, and Paul M. Barrett. "A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution." Nature 543.7646 (2017): 501. Bates, Karl T., and Peter L. Falkingham. "Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics." Biology Letters (2012): rsbl20120056. Brusatte, Stephen L., and Thomas D. Carr. "The phylogeny and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs." Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 20252. Burch, Sara. Osteological, Myological, and Phylogenetic Trends of Forelimb Reduction in Nonavian Theropod Dinosaurs. Diss. The Graduate School, Stony Brook University: Stony Brook, NY., 2015. Carpenter, Kenneth. "Forelimb biomechanics of nonavian theropod dinosaurs in predation." Senckenbergiana lethaea 82.1 (2002): 59-75. Erickson, Gregory M., et al. "Bite-force estimation for Tyrannosaurus rex from tooth-marked bones." Nature 382.6593 (1996): 706. Fowler, Denver W., et al. "Reanalysis of “Raptorex kriegsteini”: a juvenile tyrannosaurid dinosaur from Mongolia." PLoS One 6.6 (2011): e21376. Gillingham, James C., and Jeffrey A. Chambers. "Courtship and pelvic spur use in the Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus." Copeia 1982.1 (1982): 193-196. Gould, Stephen Jay, and Richard C. Lewontin. "The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme." Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 205.1161 (1979): 581-598. Hutchinson, John R., and Stephen M. Gatesy. "Dinosaur locomotion: beyond the bones." Nature 440.7082 (2006): 292. Makovicky, Peter J. "A new small theropod from the Morrison Formation of Como Bluff, Wyoming." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17.4 (1997): 755-757. MIDDLETON, KEVIN M., and STEPHEN M. GATESY. "Theropod forelimb design and evolution." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128.2 (2000): 149-187. Personal communication, Amy Atwater & Dr. John Scanella, Museum of the Rockies Pontzer, Herman, et al. "Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running." Journal of Experimental Biology 212.4 (2009): 523-534. Ruiz, Javier, et al. "The hand structure of Carnotaurus sastrei (Theropoda, Abelisauridae): implications for hand diversity and evolution in abelisaurids." Palaeontology 54.6 (2011): 1271-1277. Sellers, William I., et al. "Investigating the running abilities of Tyrannosaurus rex using stress-constrained multibody dynamic analysis." PeerJ 5 (2017): e3420. Sereno, Paul C., et al. "Tyrannosaurid skeletal design first evolved at small body size." Science 326.5951 (2009): 418-422. Stanley, Steven M. “Evidence that the Arms of Tyrannosaurus rex were not functionless but adapted for vicious slashing.” Geological Society of America Annual Meeting 2017. Sullivan, Corwin, et al. "The asymmetry of the carpal joint and the evolution of wing folding in maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences (2010): rspb20092281. Therrien, François, and Donald M. Henderson. "My theropod is bigger than yours… or not: estimating body size from skull length in theropods." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27.1 (2007): 108-115. [108:MTIBTY]2.0.CO;2 USAMI, Yoshiyuki, and Ryuta KINUGASA. "A Possibility of Fast Running of TYRANNOSAURUS." DEStech Transactions on Engineering and Technology Research amma (2017). Xu, Xing, et al. "A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China." Nature 439.7077 (2006): 715.
When Fish First Breathed Air
When Fish First Breathed Air
Year ago
Support us on Patreon! www.patreon.com/eons Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS 385 million years ago, a group of fish would undertake one of the most important journeys in the history of life and become the first vertebrates to live on dry ground. But first, they had to acquire the ability to breathe air. Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the Ichthyostega reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Lastly, this episode (as well as most episodes of Eons) features beautiful paleoart from Studio 252mya. We dare you to try to not spend hours looking at their work: 252mya.com Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.nature.com/articles/nature03893 www.nature.com/articles/nature04196 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/neu.10129/full academic.oup.com/icb/article-abstract/47/4/510/632798 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003101820500444X www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936207/ www.academia.edu/download/43683790/The_Miguasha_Fossil-Fish-Lagersttte_a_co20160313-6133-10389ml.pdf www.nature.com/articles/352234a0 rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/3/161030.abstract www.nature.com/articles/nature04637 www.nature.com/articles/ncomms4022 www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom/article/gill-morphometry-of-the-mudskipper-boleophthalmus-boddarti/75020B7318843E349EE0109C8C1E98AF www.nature.com/articles/37918 espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:9086 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/003456877090068X www.nature.com/articles/463040a www.jstor.org/stable/4133801 www.nature.com/articles/nature08623 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1569904804002022 www.academia.edu/download/30666810/nature11124.pdf www.pnas.org/content/111/3/893.full
Eons Is Evolving! Join Us on Patreon!
Eons Is Evolving! Join Us on Patreon!
Year ago
patreon.com/eons Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS We’re a team of people who are passionate about natural history, and eager to to share the fascinating story of life on Earth. Now that we’re a year old, we need to start working on ways to make sure this is sustainable long term. That’s why we’re launching a Patreon! Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/
Where Did Viruses Come From?
Where Did Viruses Come From?
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons There are fossils of viruses, of sorts, preserved in the DNA of the hosts that they’ve infected. Including you. This molecular fossil trail can help us understand where viruses came from, how they evolved and it can even help us tackle the biggest question of all: Are viruses alive? Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3094976/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4609113/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19270719/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096385/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3758182/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3190193/ hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00679842/document bioinformatics.cvr.ac.uk/paleovirology/site/html/posts/2013-04-15_what_is_paleovirology.html www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/04/giant-viruses-found-austrian-sewage-fuel-debate-over-potential-fourth-domain-life www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/cells/viruses/a/are-viruses-dead-or-alive serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/yellowstone/viruslive.html www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/the-origins-of-viruses-14398218# www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/discovery-of-the-giant-mimivirus-14402410 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2976387/ www.nature.com/news/giant-viruses-open-pandora-s-box-1.13410 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19561090 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2946954/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2906475/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179036/ www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/05/a-7000-year-old-virus-sequenced-from-a-neolithic-mans-tooth/559862/ www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9P2P1 journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191
Why Triassic Animals Were Just the Weirdest
Why Triassic Animals Were Just the Weirdest
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons The Triassic was full of creatures that look a lot like other, more modern species, even though they’re not closely related at all. The reason for this has to do with how evolution works and with the timing of the Triassic itself: when life was trapped between two mass extinctions. Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the Drepanosaurus reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Finally, thanks to Emilio Rolandia, Matt Celeskey, and Studio 252mya for their excellent images as well. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Original description of Triopticus with a description of repeated bodyplans and lifestyles of Triassic and later Mesozoic animals www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822(16)30860-0 Original description of Shringasaurus with discussion of allokotosaur evolution www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-08658-8 Original description of Avicranium with a discussion of drepanosaurids rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/10/170499#sec-10 An earlier phylogenetic analysis of drepanosaurs with discussion of their likely habits in life doi.org/10.1017/S1477201904001427 A very thorough, but fairly technical discussion of adaptive radiations (including those triggered by extinctions) can be found in chapters 4, 5, and 10 of: Stanley, SM. 1979. Macroevolution: Pattern and Process. John Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5735-X
That Time It Rained for Two Million Years
That Time It Rained for Two Million Years
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Check out our NEW POSTER: store.dftba.com/products/eons-poster At the beginning of the Triassic Period, with the continents locked together from pole-to-pole in the supercontinent of Pangea, the world is hot, flat, and very, very dry. But then 234 million years ago, the climate suddenly changed for the wetter. Thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Thanks to Franz Anthony, Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: Julio Lacerda: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Franz Anthony: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018214003253 journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001853 journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161457 www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/413056 www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-03996-1 science.sciencemag.org/content/321/5895/1485.short pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/40/1/79/130736 ttu-ir.tdl.org/ttu-ir/bitstream/handle/2346/20221/31295008017864.pdf?sequence=1 www.jstor.org/stable/41684613?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018298001175 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018215003053 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00704.x www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018210001434 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018205005286 science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/254/5029/263.full.pdf?casa_token=7g3gnYUD0gIAAAAA:PcbqrP5BLHUzxbhQgHKmNPI27ma_gB6Ph3nnFzWkXZZd4nPju5fE6ieeTv-4GAGCBxGnzMtu-xFK0g www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018209004805 eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/90239/1/Carnian%20humidity%20final%20version.pdf www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael_Simms4/publication/249546497_Climatic_and_biotic_change_in_the_Late_Triassic/links/56543f2b08ae1ef929767f3f.pdf science.sciencemag.org/content/338/6105/366.short palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/benton/reprints/1982triassic.pdf
From the Fall of Dinos to the Rise of Humans
From the Fall of Dinos to the Rise of Humans
Year ago
Check out our other journeys through geologic time here : usa-video.net/pl/PLi6K9w_UbfFSFIpEU9VMavTM5MIbOAiW5 Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS After taking you on a journey through geologic time, we've arrived at the Cenozoic Era. Most of the mammals and birds that you can think of appeared during this era but perhaps more importantly, the Cenozoic marks the rise of organisms that look a lot like us. Thanks to Sean Murtha for the wonderful illustration of Tsidiiyazhi. Check out more of Sean's work here: www.seanmurthaart.com And thanks to Ceri Thomas for the very cool Titanoboa reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com And as always thanks to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Thanks to Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/licensing Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/events/cowen3b.html science.sciencemag.org/content/327/5970/1214 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100131221348.htm www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090127165505.htm journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001853 www.paleocene-mammals.de www.paleocene-mammals.de/primates.htm www.paleocene-mammals.de/condylarths.htm www.pnas.org/content/114/30/8047 www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/07/tiny-fossil-reveals-what-happened-birds-after-dinosaurs-went-extinct books.google.com/books?id=9GXdGiZyzNAC&pg=PA52 www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/primate-origins-and-the-plesiadapiforms-106236783 citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.502.8153&rep=rep1&type=pdf sp.lyellcollection.org/content/101/1/401 agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/2014PA002650 www.geolsoc.org.uk/Geoscientist/Archive/June-2014/The-Arctic-Azolla-event research.amnh.org/paleontology/perissodactyl/concepts/deep-time/eocene www.britannica.com/science/Eocene-Epoch paleonerdish.wordpress.com/2015/08/17/climate-change-and-the-evolution-of-mammals/ www.donaldprothero.com/files/47440402.pdf palaeos.com/cenozoic/oligocene/oligocene.html journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0116830 www.jstor.org/stable/2407816 www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/change/deeptime/miocene.html www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/hominoid-origins-135874580 www.britannica.com/science/Miocene-Epoch sciencing.com/climate-miocene-period-4139.html www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/change/deeptime/pliocene.html www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/change/deeptime/pleistocene.html www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/primate-origins-and-the-plesiadapiforms-106236783 www.pnas.org/content/104/4/1159&sa=D&ust=1525092391891000&usg=AFQjCNGJNeJxKQiON8lkDaW_nB3kCbtUSg www.researchgate.net/publication/234272869_The_Late_Eocene-Oligocene_Extinctions www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/effects-of-climate-change-on-primate-evolution-141807385 openscholarship.wustl.edu/etd/95/ www.pnas.org/content/103/12/4381 www2.palomar.edu/anthro/earlyprimates/early_2.htm rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1676/4087 www.pnas.org/content/105/32/11093 oldest simian pubs.geoscienceworld.org/geology/article-lookup/36/2/179 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018211000083 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4264005/ www.pnas.org/content/96/25/14664 www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/effects-of-climate-change-on-primate-evolution-141807385 www.researchgate.net/publication/262563845_Platyrrhines_catarrhines_and_the_fossil_record www.scientificamerican.com/article/planet-of-the-apes-2006-06/ www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-ape-fossil-evolution-diverge-20151029-story.html rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/365/1556/3389 www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/effects-of-climate-change-on-primate-evolution-141807385
The Weird, Watery Tale of Spinosaurus
The Weird, Watery Tale of Spinosaurus
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Check out our NEW POSTER: store.dftba.com/products/eons-poster In 1912, a fossil collector discovered some strange bone fragments in the eerie, beautiful Cretaceous Bahariya rock formation of Egypt. Eventually, that handful of fossil fragments would reveal to scientists one of the strangest dinosaurs that ever existed -- the world’s only known semi-aquatic dinosaur. Thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/the-discovery-and-early-interpretation-of-spinosaurus/ laelaps.wordpress.com/2007/08/02/what-big-neural-spines-you-have/ www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/s/spinosaurus.html www.nature.com/articles/324359a0 www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Martill/publication/277428738_A_new_crested_maniraptoran_dinosaur_from_the_Santana_Formation_Lower_Cretaceous_of_Brazil/links/54ac23b40cf2479c2ee76e0c/A-new-crested-maniraptoran-dinosaur-from-the-Santana-Formation-Lower-Cretaceous-of-Brazil.pdf science.sciencemag.org/content/282/5392/1276 www.researchgate.net/profile/Gregory_Wilson4/publication/235242262_A_Long-Snouted_Predatory_Dinosaur_from_Africa_and_the_Evolution_of_Spinosaurids/links/004635268b0ff353e3000000.pdf www.researchgate.net/profile/Eric_Buffetaut/publication/228488989_New_information_on_the_skull_of_the_enigmatic_theropod_Spinosaurus_with_remarks_on_its_size_and_affinities/links/0912f5121ec22d6bdc000000.pdf ac.els-cdn.com/S1251805098800542/1-s2.0-S1251805098800542-main.pdf?_tid=2c66d5b1-c1b1-474b-9ec6-a48aa6dad0d5&acdnat=1524349730_cc6c271c4c4f70e8b44bb983edd459c6 www.cambridge.org/core/journals/geological-magazine/article/riddle-of-spinosaurus-aegyptiacus-dorsal-sail/B19941405E1791A97230BCF003017B7B/core-reader news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/09/140911-spinosaurus-fossil-discovery-dinosaur-science/?beta=true www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/meet-mighty-spinosaurus-first-swimming-dinosaur-180952679/ The Baryonyx walkeri is from Cuff A, Rayfield E
The Age of Reptiles in Three Acts
The Age of Reptiles in Three Acts
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Reptiles emerged from the Paleozoic as humble creatures, but in time, they grew to become some of the largest forms of life ever to stomp, swim, and soar across the planet. This Age of Reptiles was a spectacular prehistoric epic, and it all took place in a single era: the Mesozoic. This episode (as well as most episodes of Eons) features beautiful paleoart from Studio 252mya. We dare you to try to not spend hours looking at their work: 252mya.com And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2013/05/28/lystrosaurus-the-most-humble-badass-of-the-triassic/ www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213015182 www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15596 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/brv.12255/full www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-11538-w www.pnas.org/content/113/18/5036 www.sci-news.com/geology/science-deccan-traps-volcanism-dinosaur-extinction-02345.html eps.harvard.edu/files/eps/files/renne.kt_.science.2013.pdf pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/14/10/868/203906/detritus-feeding-as-a-buffer-to-extinction-at-the?redirectedFrom=PDF
How the Chalicothere Split In Two
How the Chalicothere Split In Two
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Two extinct relatives of horses and rhinos are closely related to each other but have strikingly different body plans. How did two of the same kind of animal, living in the same place, end up looking so different? Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the very cool Anisodon reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at alphynix.tumblr.com and nixillustration.com And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Finally, thanks to Dmitry Bogdanov, Roman Uchytel, Ryan Somma and Julio Lacerda for their excellent images as well. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Prothero, D. R., & Schoch, R. M. (1989). The evolution of perissodactyls (Vol. 15). Oxford University Press, USA. Peters, N., & de Vos, J. (2012). First evidence of a chalicothere (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) in The Netherlands. Cainozoic research, 9(2), 141-144. Clauss, M., Frey, R., Kiefer, B., Lechner-Doll, M., Loehlein, W., Polster, C., ... & Streich, W. J. (2003). The maximum attainable body size of herbivorous mammals: morphophysiological constraints on foregut, and adaptations of hindgut fermenters. Oecologia, 136(1), 14-27. Heaney, L. R. (1991). A synopsis of climatic and vegetational change in Southeast Asia. In Tropical Forests and Climate (pp. 53-61). Springer, Dordrecht. Churcher, C. S. (2014). A vacant niche? The curious distributions of African Perissodactyla. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 69(1), 1-8. Werdelin, L., & Sanders, W. J. (2010). Cenozoic mammals of Africa. Univ of California Press. Colbert, H. (1935). Distributional and phylogenetic studies on Indian fossil mammals. III. A classification of the Chalicotherioidea. In American Museum Novitates. Bai, B., Wang, Y., & Meng, J. (2011). Early Eocene chalicothere Litolophus with hoof-like unguals. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(6), 1387-1391. Peterson, O. A. (1907). Preliminary notes on some American chalicotheres. The American Naturalist, 41(492), 733-752. Munthe, J., & Coombs, M. C. (1979). Miocene dome-skulled chalicotheres (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the western United States: a preliminary discussion of a bizarre structure. Journal of Paleontology, 77-91. Janis, C. M., Scott, K. M., & Jacobs, L. L. (Eds.). (1998). Evolution of tertiary mammals of North America: Volume 1, terrestrial carnivores, ungulates, and ungulate like mammals (Vol. 1). Cambridge University Press. Coombs, M. C., & Rothschild, B. M. (1999). Phalangeal fusion in schizotheriine chalicotheres (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Journal of Paleontology, 73(4), 682-690. Coombs, M. C., Hunt Jr, R. M., Stepleton, E., ALBRIGHT III, L. B., & Fremd, T. J. (2001). Stratigraphy, chronology, biogeography, and taxonomy of early Miocene small chalicotheres in North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21(3), 607-620. Coombs, M. C. (1979). Tylocephalonyx, a new genus of North American dome-skulled chalicotheres (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Bulletin of the AMNH; v. 164, article 1. Coombs, M. C. (1975). Sexual dimorphism in chalicotheres (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Systematic Biology, 24(1), 55-62. Semprebon, G. M., Sise, P. J., & Coombs, M. C. (2011). Potential bark and fruit browsing as revealed by stereomicrowear analysis of the peculiar clawed herbivores known as chalicotheres (Perissodactyla, Chalicotherioidea). Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 18(1), 33-55. Zapfe, H. 1976. "Die Fauna der miozanen Spaltenfiillung von Neudorf a. d. March (CSSR). Chalicotherium grande (Blv.)." Sitzungsberichte Osterreich Akad. Wissenschaften, Math.-na-turwiss. Klasse (Abt. I) 185: 91-112. Zapf 1979. "Chalicotherium grande (Blainv.) aus der miozanen Spaltenfiillung von Neudorf an der March (Devinska Nova Ves), Tschechoslowakei." Neue Denkschriften Naturhist. Mus. Wien 2: 1-282. Zhou, Mingzhun, Yu Munthe, J., & Coombs, M. C. (1979). Miocene dome-skulled chalicotheres (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the western United States: a preliminary discussion of a bizarre structure. Journal of Paleontology, 77-91. Wunderlich, R. E., and W. L. Jungers. "Manual digital pressures during knuckle-walking in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)." American journal of physical anthropology 139.3 (2009): 394-403.
How the Squid Lost Its Shell
How the Squid Lost Its Shell
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS The ancestors of modern, squishy cephalopods like the octopus and the squid all had shells. In ancient times, their shell was their greatest asset but it eventually proved to be their biggest weakness. Special thanks to Franz Anthony for the beautiful cephalopod reconstructions. You can see more of Franz's tremendous work at 252mya.com And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/taxa/inverts/mollusca/mollusca.php citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.860.9021&rep=rep1&type=pdf onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bies.201100001/full www.deepseanews.com/2017/10/how-the-squid-lost-its-shell/ www.researchgate.net/publication/269526655_An_endocochleate_experiment_in_the_Silurian_straight-shelled_cephalopod_Sphooceras link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13358-015-0100-3 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/1475-4983.00155/asset/1475-4983.00155.pdf?v=1&t=jedjjjbl&s=df93664ab7ea8768c2832ea135e7dd76626b0ea3 journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0007262 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00828.x/epdf arstechnica.com/science/2017/11/if-you-liked-the-cambrian-explosion-youll-love-the-ordovician-radiation/ Squid Empire by Danna Staaf: www.cephalopodiatrist.com/p/squid-empire.html
What Was the Ancestor of Everything? (feat. PBS Space Time and It’s Okay To Be Smart)
What Was the Ancestor of Everything? (feat. PBS Space Time and It’s Okay To Be Smart)
Year ago
Check out It’s Okay To Be Smart’s video for more about the origins of life on earth: usa-video.net/_uAJY1mqtw4-video.html And check out PBS Space Time’s video on the physics of life: usa-video.net/GcfLZSL7YGw-video.html Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS The search for our origins go back to a single common ancestor -- one that remains shrouded in mystery. It’s the ancestor of everything we know and today scientists call it the last universal common ancestor, or LUCA. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios usa-video.net/u/itsokaytobesmart usa-video.net/u/pbsspacetime Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.nature.com/articles/nmicrobiol2016116 www.nytimes.com/2016/07/26/science/last-universal-ancestor.html astrobiology.nasa.gov/news/looking-for-luca-the-last-universal-common-ancestor/ microbialcell.com/researcharticles/physiology-phylogeny-and-luca/ www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/poolepaper.html we.vub.ac.be/~dglg/Web/Teaching/Les/Discussions/Pre-biotic/Moreira-LUCA.pdf www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/7/2/27/htm link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11084-017-9542-5 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4008548/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4176008/ www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-journal-of-astrobiology/article/buds-of-the-tree-the-highway-to-the-last-universal-common-ancestor/ED26AA7787BA5A152090913CC7C20067 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15035042 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21740227 biologydirect.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6150-8-32 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0923250805002676 www.saylor.org/content/BIO_Kimball/users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/G/GenomeSizes.html
Inside the Dinosaur Library
Inside the Dinosaur Library
Year ago
You can check out Google's Science Journal app at makingscience.withgoogle.com/science-journal We're back in Bozeman, Montana this week talking to Amy Atwater, Collections Manager at the Museum of the Rockies. MOR has among the largest collections of North American dinosaurs in the United States. We talk to Amy about her job and the collection she manages. Thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart : spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/
The Most Useful Fossils in the World
The Most Useful Fossils in the World
Year ago
Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS For decades, one of the most abundant kinds of fossils on Earth, numbering in the millions of specimens, was a mystery to paleontologists. But geologists discovered that these mysterious fossils could basically be used to tell time in the deep past. Thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart : spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Agematsu S, Uesugi K, Hiroyoshi S, Sashida K. 2017. Reconstruction of the multielement apparatus of the earliest Triassic conodont, Hindeodus parvus, using synchotron radiation X-ray micro-tomography. Journal of Paleontology. doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2017.61 Briggs DEG, Clarkson ENK, Aldridge, RL. 1983. The conodont animal. Lethaia 16: 1-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3931.1983.tb01993.x Dzik J. 1991. Evolution of oral apparatuses in the conodont chordates. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 36(3): 265-323. app.pan.pl/archive/published/app36/app36-265.pdf Goudemand N, Orchard MJ, Urdy S, Bucher H, Tafforeau P. 2011. Synchotron-aided reconstruction of the conodont feeding apparatus and implications for the mouth of the first vertebrates. PNAS 108(21): 8720-8724. www.pnas.org/content/108/21/8720 Purnell MA, Donoghue PC. 1997. Architecture and functional morphology of the skeletal apparatus of ozarkodinid conodonts. Philosophical Transations of the Royal Society B 352: 1545-1564. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.1997.0141 Purnell MA, Donoghue PC. 1998. Skeletal architecture, homologies and taphonomy of ozarkodinid conodonts. Palaeontology 41(1): 57-102. www.palass.org/sites/default/files/media/publications/palaeontology/volume_41/vol41_part1_pp57-102.pdf www.researchgate.net/publication/273457548_Conodonts_from_the_Carnian-Norian_Boundary_Upper_Triassic_of_Black_Bear_Ridge_northeastern_British_Columbia_Canada_New_Mexico_Museum_of_Natural_History_and_Science_Bulletin_64_1-139_2014 www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/rhaetian
What a Dinosaur Looks Like Under a Microscope
What a Dinosaur Looks Like Under a Microscope
Year ago
You can check out Google's Science Journal app at makingscience.withgoogle.com/science-journal We traveled to Bozeman, Montana to meet with Dr. Ellen-Thérèse Lamm who explores ancient life by studying it at the cellular level. Kallie and Dr. Lamm discuss how she does this, and what she’s learned by putting dinosaur bones under a microscope. Check out the Museum of the Rockies - Paleohistology Lab website: www.morhistologylab.org/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/
How the Turtle Got Its Shell
How the Turtle Got Its Shell
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Where did turtles come from? And how did the they get their shells? The answers to these questions would eventually cause scientists to rethink the entire history of reptile evolution. Thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart : spinops.blogspot.com/ Additionally, a big thank you to Tyler Lyson, Luke Norton, Andrey Atuchin, and Gaberiel Bever for their images of Eunotosaurus. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: books.google.com/books?id=foxPAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA538 books.google.com/books?id=AR3BDA3QJNUC&pg=PA8 www.researchgate.net/publication/227840230_Development_of_the_turtle_carapace_Implications_for_the_evolution_of_a_novel_bauplan www.mrfdigs.com/publications/2009_lyson-gilbert-loggerheads.pdf www.jstor.org/stable/221677 www.nature.com/articles/nature07533 www.nature.com/articles/456450a rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1656/507 www.newscientist.com/article/dn14892-fossil-reveals-how-the-turtle-got-its-shell/ phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2009/07/09/how-the-turtle-got-its-shell-through-skeletal-shifts-and-muscular-origami/ onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jeb.12268/abstract www.nature.com/articles/nature14472 www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/06/24/416657576/how-the-turtle-got-its-shell www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(16)30478-X www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/07/the-turtle-shell-first-evolved-for-digging-not-defence/491087/ academic.oup.com/jmammal/article-abstract/51/2/288/832941?redirectedFrom=fulltext www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/395600 books.google.com/books?id=8rXIDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA43 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024408297900807 www.jstor.org/stable/3883561
The Other Explosion You Should Know About
The Other Explosion You Should Know About
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Fossils found around the world suggest that multi-cellular life was not only present before the Cambrian Explosion, it was much more elaborate and diverse than anyone thought. This is the story of the sudden burst of diversity that marked the dawn of truly complex life on our planet. Thanks to Franz Anthony and Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of Franz's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony Thanks as always to Nobu Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.stratigraphy.org/gssp/ediacaran.pdf www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vendian/ediacaran.php advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/10/e1500800.full burgess-shale.rom.on.ca/en/science/origin/03-enigmatic-edicarans.php www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vendian/ediacara.html doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0708336105 science.sciencemag.org/content/305/5687/1141.full science.sciencemag.org/content/319/5859/81.full www.pnas.org/content/111/36/13122.full rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/281/1793/20141202 www.pnas.org/content/97/13/6947.full
How Sex Became a Thing
How Sex Became a Thing
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS We don’t know which living thing was the very first to arrive at the totally revolutionary process that is sexual reproduction but we can follow the history of how (and why) sex became a thing. Thanks to Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/licensing Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: science.sciencemag.org/content/319/5870/1660.long www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413262/#s4title news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080401-first-sex.html www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/sexual-reproduction-and-the-evolution-of-sex-824 www.indiana.edu/~curtweb/Research/Red_Queen%20hyp.html cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/6/3/a016154.full www.genetics.org/content/181/1/3.full www.scientificamerican.com/article/fossils-rewrite-history-of-sex/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19464181 www.britannica.com/science/Ediacara-fauna www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/40333/title/The-Sex-Paradox/ www.britannica.com/science/reproduction-biology/Reproduction-of-organisms#ref607656 cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/6/1/a016121.full www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4640172/ www.britannica.com/animal/Hydra-hydrozoan-genus www.britannica.com/science/algae/Reproduction-and-life-histories www.britannica.com/science/meiosis-cytology www.reuters.com/article/us-science-plant/fossils-from-1-6-billion-years-ago-may-be-oldest-known-plants-idUSKBN16L2GH
From the Cambrian Explosion to the Great Dying
From the Cambrian Explosion to the Great Dying
Year ago
You can go to Audible.com/Eons or text “Eons” to 500-500 to get started today with your 30-day trial membership with a free audiobook The first era of our current eon, the Paleozoic Era, is probably the most deceptively fascinating time in Earth’s history. With near constant revolutions in life, punctuated by catastrophic extinctions, it is also one of the most chaotic. Correction! At 9:19, we erroneously refer to Dimetrodon as an herbivore. It was definitely a carnivore. We even made a whole video about Dimetrodon and their carnivorous ways in a previous episode: usa-video.net/SR3OOP9mImI-video.html Thanks to everyone who pointed out our error! Thanks to Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/licensing Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.nature.com/news/what-sparked-the-cambrian-explosion-1.19379 science.sciencemag.org/content/341/6152/1355.full academic.oup.com/icb/article/43/1/157/604502 zoologicalletters.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40851-014-0004-x burgess-shale.rom.on.ca/en/science/burgess-shale/03-fossils.php#composition austhrutime.com/cambrian_period.htm dev.biologists.org/content/132/11/2503 park.org/Canada/Museum/extinction/camcause.html ac-els-cdn-com.libproxy.mtroyal.ca/S0031018210003184/1-s2.0-S0031018210003184-main.pdf?_tid=a7fd64d8-f408-11e7-96fe-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1515370547_3b81bba2e15582b09e40465c75c9c419 www.nature.com.libproxy.mtroyal.ca/articles/s41561-017-0006-3 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.2008.00118.x/abstract;jsessionid=D36B0CF621E81915838CB1BF7A3CB985.f04t02 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.2008.00115.x/abstract www.fossilhunters.xyz/disappeared-species/the-major-extinctions-and-their-causes-cambrianordovician.html www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1342937X13000154?via%3Dihub www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1002007107000196 web.archive.org/web/19991009125017/www.clas.ufl.edu/users/pciesiel/gly3150/plant.html www.newscientist.com/article/dn21417-first-land-plants-plunged-earth-into-ice-age/ link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0001437014050014 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1342937X13000154 www.researchgate.net/publication/46817981_Silurian-Devonian_boundary_events_and_their_influence_on_cephalopod_evolution_evolutionary_significance_of_cephalopod_egg_size_during_mass_extinctions pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1066p/report.pdf journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179262 blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2013/09/25/first-jawed-fish-had-one-ugly-face/#.Wg9iLhNSyfR sciencythoughts.blogspot.ca/2013/12/a-scorpion-from-late-devonian-of-south.html www.newscientist.com/article/dn18346-oldest-footprints-of-a-four-legged-vertebrate-discovered/ onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01512.x/full www.nature.com/articles/nature10969?message-global=remove ac.els-cdn.com/S0960982215009276/1-s2.0-S0960982215009276-main.pdf?_tid=7f5f51ce-0486-11e8-9da1-00000aab0f6c&acdnat=1517183815_9a41800ae5d0f975bf3b4dfb1f81fdac books.google.com/books?id=hFLmCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=first+terrestrial+arachnids&source=bl&ots=tyPhAKSwrP&sig=xK1ZdvR6toJsYAhfIUHUQmlWFks&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwixx-747fvYAhUE2WMKHZQOC8MQ6AEIiwEwEQ#v=onepage&q=first%20terrestrial%20arachnids&f=false
The Whole Saga of the Supercontinents
The Whole Saga of the Supercontinents
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS The study of natural history is the study of how the world has changed but Earth itself is in a constant state of flux -- because the ground beneath your feet is always moving. So if we want to know how we got here, we have to understand how "here" got here. Thanks to Nathan E. Rogers, Julio Lacerda, Franz Anthony and Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/licensing Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.mantleplumes.org/WebDocuments/Hess1962.pdf → Hess’s first paper proposing seafloor spreading courses.washington.edu/ess502/Vine_Matthews.pdf → Vine and Matthews’s first description of mirrored magnetic anomalies www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/eens1110/pltect.htm → Class notes from Stephen Nelson @ Tulane on the history of discovery and mechanisms of plate tectonics www.indiana.edu/~g105lab/1425chap13.htm → Additional rundown on the mechanisms of plate tectonics www.whoi.edu/sbl/liteSite.do?litesiteid=9092&articleId=13407 → Biography of Marie Tharp www.iisc.ernet.in/currsci/oct252003/1121.pdf → review article of pre-pangaean continents doi:10.1038/ngeo1069 → Paper linking the P-Tr extinction to Siberian Traps volcanism lighting coal on fire dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP326.4 → Very solid reconstructions of Rodinia and Pannotia www.le.ac.uk/gl/ads/SiberianTraps/Documents/White2002-P-Tr-whodunit.pdf → review of the potential and probable causes of the PTr extinction, as well as some discussion linking the TrJ extinction to the rifting of North America away from Pangaea science.sciencemag.org/content/340/6135/941 → TrJ extinction linked with North American rifting web.archive.org/web/20080413162401/www.science.org.au/nova/newscientist/104ns_011.htm → Future continents usa-video.net/UwWWuttntio-video.html → Basic animation of continental movements usa-video.net/bQywDr-btz4-video.html → Animation of Pangaea Ultima (although video called it Pangaea Proxima for some reason) books.google.com/books?id=apA8DAAAQBAJ&pg=PA3&lpg=PA3&dq=kenorland&source=bl&ots=NBXie9PMCu&sig=nmvdLZWskjuGbSuXtuA_kcUY1SA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjGuOTf6OrYAhVOyWMKHba1BnY4ChDoAQg0MAM#v=onepage&q=kenorland&f=false citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.566.6728&rep=rep1&type=pdf people.earth.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/Evans/52_12b-Zhang+Nuna.pdf science.psu.edu/news-and-events/2001-news/Hedges8-2001.htm
The Great Snake Debate
The Great Snake Debate
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS 90 million years ago, an ancient snake known as Najash had...legs. It is by no means the only snake to have limbs either. But what’s even stranger: we’re not at all sure where it came from. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Thanks to Franz Anthony, Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the snake illustrations. You can find more of their work here: Julio Lacerda: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Franz Anthony: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.wienslab.com/Publications_files/Wiens_et_al_Evolution_2006.pdf Locomotion in sea snakes: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1420-9101.2001.00265.x/pdf Ear bones in mammals: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3552421/ Skinks: www.livescience.com/3053-evolution-action-lizards-losing-limbs.html Pachyrhachis lifestyle: www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08912969909386578 Snake defining features: www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/obl4he/vertebratediversity/serpentes_snakes.html Hsiang & Field 2015 Summary: blogs.biomedcentral.com/bmcseriesblog/2015/05/20/limbless-triumph-origin-diversification-snakes/ 2012: Zaher at al. think Dinylisia is a sister taxon to all extant snakes: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00755.x/abstract 2015 news story on Tetrapodophis: www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/07/four-legged-snake-fossil-stuns-scientists-and-ignites-controversy Another 2015 story on Tetrapodophis: phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/07/23/a-fossil-snake-with-four-legs/ 2015 news story on Eophis: www.scientificamerican.com/article/remarkable-fossils-push-back-snake-origins-by-65-million-years/ 2017 thesis on mosasaurs that makes it quite clear that there’s still quite a bit unresolved in the evolutionary relationships: era.library.ualberta.ca/files/c4x51hj54w#.WiXVU9WnG3A varanids (monitor lizards): animaldiversity.org/accounts/Varanidae/ Coniophis (65 million years young): news.yale.edu/2012/07/25/few-bones-most-primitive-snake-emerges Toxicofera paper: bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-13-93#Sec2 See the "Bitter Realities about Squamate Phylogeny" section on this page: www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/geol431/lectures/17blepidosauria.html Tetrapodophis actually aquatic?, paper proposes: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667116301094 2013 paper w/the 4000 species: bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-13-93#Sec2 file:///home/chronos/u-e54db2a63a5b8e4345d3372e31d0632282c76ec5/Downloads/apestiguiazaher_nature06-0001.pdf www.nature.com/articles/nature04413 2017: Norisophis www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667116302014 Nidophis: www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2013.764882 Coniophis: blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/first-prehistoric-snake-slithered-out-on-land-not-at-sea/ www.livescience.com/27845-snakes.html www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667116301094 www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/obl4he/vertebratediversity/serpentes_snakes.html www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3552421/ watermark.silverchair.com/j.1096-3642.2009.00511.x.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAdAwggHMBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggG9MIIBuQIBADCCAbIGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMRzwNfprt0x5FaRYBAgEQgIIBg6jXei7ktTZ6OT9JEIBHqHcP6NWoN8ZQ3V8_8f66h9XGJCbZJFE-HpZlZe3ABqOsTfbKwzTP81PkIXEWg8HsNOPU_tmhudWMaIfEgvXSQmB4qvJzcsn3yORkxFW6-X3qxh59JsBP-Na4UvRKMOKFUckpX4ugYYEUkunPbG6Tb0a-h_EaaerhpTFAJfihmZ6rEd1ebBgO09AtOmtNNR61TCts3zl3efZILYC-UsonaXe-XIea5HQg5MzVb5Ye3iXbc57hDH6p0t99RTVwCVtFasUXVqpxT0Oyx0oAIjD_vrn9-_DpRCKzgEmrEGOddLVypCn_p5H07a3nucJMqBhQ4xHE8bBVIKVHjDLdLH1yQIW2Fh5pFHZPB-6ONI3TFQ68EZnHHf2o9IywK3s_3vrHn8IXFnAEI7xKLHvTzPr7F8f_UGcAbyV6ryMH_Mz9JjE90mlMvEHjFRqnxFxaR9zHv3ETHDYE-jenctA74ec4XX2pxkpFSPOf2bmWqXncoCxkxKz9wA www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08912969909386578 blogs.biomedcentral.com/bmcseriesblog/2015/05/20/limbless-triumph-origin-diversification-snakes/
Untangling the Devil's Corkscrew
Untangling the Devil's Corkscrew
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS In the late 1800s, paleontologists in Nebraska found huge coils of hardened sand stuck deep in the earth. Local ranchers called them Devil's Corkscrews and scientists called them Daemonelix. It was clear these corkscrews were created by some form of life, but what? Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the corkscrew illustrations. You can find more of Julio's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Osborn, H. F. (1921). The age of mammals in Europe, Asia and North America. Macmillan. Woodburne, M. (Ed.). (2004). Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic mammals of North America: biostratigraphy and geochronology. Columbia University Press. Darwin, C. (1859). On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London. Barbour, E.H. 1886. Notice of new gigantic fossils. Barbour, E.H. 1894. Additional Notes on the new fossil daimonelix. Its mode of occurrence, its gross and minute structure. University of Nebraska Studies, vol 2(1) pp 1-14. books.google.com/books?id=F8gDAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA124&dq=%22university+studies%22+the+university+of+nebraska+volume+I+1892&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiIp8uK9K3YAhUHHGMKHc8bCZkQ6AEILjAB#v=onepage&q=%22university%20studies%22%20the%20university%20of%20nebraska%20volume%20I%201892&f=false Martin, L. D., & Bennett, D. K. (1977). The burrows of the Miocene beaver Palaeocastor, western Nebraska, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 22(3), 173-193. Meyer, R. C. (1999). Helical burrows as a palaeoclimate response: Daimonelix by Palaeocastor. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 147(3), 291-298. www.sciencedirect.com.ezp.lib.cwu.edu/science/article/pii/S0031018298001576 Joeckel, R. M., & Tucker, S. T. (2013). Exceptionally well preserved latest Miocene (Hemphillian) rodent burrows from the eastern Great Plains, United States, and a review of the burrows of North American rodents. Palaios, 28(11), 793-824. digital.bl.fcen.uba.ar/Download/paper/paper_15507424_v58_n1_p51_Arias.pdf Mansfield, W. C. (1927). Some peculiar fossil forms from Maryland. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/15739/1/USNMP-71_2688_1927.pdf Holman, J. A. (1981). A herpetofauna from an eastern extension of the Harrison Formation (early Miocene: Arikareean), Cherry County, Nebraska. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 1(1), 49-56. Lugn, A. L. (1941). The origin of Daemonelix. The Journal of Geology, 49(7), 673-696. digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1366&context=geosciencefacpub Retallack, G. J. (1997). Neogene expansion of the North American prairie. Palaios, 12(4), 380-390. Hunt, R. M. (1990). Taphonomy and sedimentology of Arikaree (lower Miocene) fluvial, eolian, and lacustrine paleoenvironments, Nebraska and Wyoming; a paleobiota entombed in fine-grained volcaniclastic rocks. Geological Society of America Special Papers, 244, 69-112. Samuels, J. X., & Valkenburgh, B. V. (2009). Craniodental adaptations for digging in extinct burrowing beavers. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(1), 254-268. Craniodental adaptations for digging in extinct burrowing beavers
The Time Terror Birds Invaded
The Time Terror Birds Invaded
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS About 5 million years ago, a new predator made its way from the south and onto the coastal plains of North America. It was a giant, flightless, carnivorous bird and came to be known by one of the coolest and most richly earned nicknames in all of paleontology: the terror bird. Correction! Thanks to Ben Creisler for pointing out that at 4:10, we mixed up the Paleogene Period with the Neogene Period. We regret the error and hope you still find these birds as terrifying as we do. Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the Titanis illustration. You can find more of Julio's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/8/e1600883 www.britannica.com/place/Gondwana-supercontinent www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150727-the-reign-of-the-terror-birds www.sciencemag.org/news/2006/10/terror-birds-bigger-and-faster www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/04/new-species-terror-bird-discovered hoopermuseum.earthsci.carleton.ca/flightless/phorus.htm www.livescience.com/40311-pleistocene-epoch.html www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/florida-vertebrate-fossils/species/titanis-walleri news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6313741.stm neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/Species-Account/nb/species/relser1/overview earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=4073 www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/files/6313/9447/0040/bulletin-gouldquitmyerlowres.pdf www.jstor.org/stable/40035724 www.bio-nica.info/Biblioteca/MacFadden2007TerrorBirdsRedated.pdf www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/24942595.pdf onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/geb.12504/abstract journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0011856 rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1574/1769 news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/08/0801_050801_terrorbirds.html
How Two Microbes Changed History
How Two Microbes Changed History
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS What if I told you that, more than two billion years ago, some tiny living thing started to live inside another living thing … and never left? And now, the descendants of both of those things are in you? Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: Chemical and membrane similarities between prokaryotes and organelles: Margolin W. 2005. FTSZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 6(11): 862-871. doi:10.1038/nrm1745 Wise RR, Hoober JK. 2007. Structure and function of plastids. Springer, Berlin. (Chapter 5) ISBN 9781402065705 Zeth K, Thein M. 2010. Porins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common themes and variations. Biochemical Journal 431(1): 13-22. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20100371 Fischer K, Weber A, Brink S, Arbinger B, Schünemann D, Borchert S, Heldt HW, Popp B, Link TA, Eckeskorn C, Flügge U-I. 1994. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two new members of the porin family. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269(41): 25754-25760. www.jbc.org/content/269/41/25754.long Fairman JW, Noinaj N, Buchanan SK. 2011. The structural biology of β-barrel membrane proteins: a summary of recent reports. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 21(4): 523-531. doi.org/10.1016/j.sbi.2011.05.005 Mileykovskaya E, Dowhan W. 2009. Cardiolipin membrane domains in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 1788(10): 2084-2091. doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2009.04.003 Organelle genomes, organelle dependence on the host cells: Timmis JN, Ayliffe MA, Huang CY, Martin W. 2004. Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes. Nature Reviews Genetics 5: 123-135. doi:10.1038/nrg1271 Andersson SGE, Zomorodipour A, Andersson JO, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Alsmark UCM, Podowski RM, Näslund AK, Eriksson A-S, Winkler HH, Kurland CG. 1998. The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of mitochondria. Nature 396: 133-140. doi:10.1038/24094 Stoebe B, Kowallik KV. 1999. Gene-cluster analysis in chloroplast genomics. Trends in Genetics 15, 344-347. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9525(99)01815-6 Douglas A, Raven JA. 2003. Genomes at the interface between bacteria and organelles. Philosophical Transactions B 358(1429): 5-18. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2002.1188 Dagan T, Roettger M, Stucken K, Landan G, Koch R, Major P, Gould SB, Goremykin VV, Rippka R, Tandeue de Marsac N, Gugger M, Lockhart PJ, Allen JF, Brune I, Maus I, Pühler A, Martin WF. 2013. Genomes of stigonematalean cyanobacteria (Subsection V) and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis from prokaryotes to plastids. Genome Biology and Evolution 5(1): 31-44. doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evs117 History of the idea: Sagan, L. 1967. On the origin of mitosing cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology 14(3): 225-274. doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(67)90079-3 Oldest fossil appearances: Bengtson S, Sallstedt T,Belivanova V, Whitehouse M. 2017. Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggest 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae. PLOS Biology 15(3): e2000735. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2000735 Bengtson S, Rasmussen B, Ivarsson M, Muhling J, Broman C, Marone F, Stampononi M, Bekker A. 2017. Fungus-like mycelial fossils in 2.4-billion-year-old vesicular basalt. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1, Article number: 0141 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0141
Eons Livestream Q&A
Eons Livestream Q&A
Year ago
Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: IMAGE: Horseshoe crab pixnio.com/fauna-animals/crabs-and-lobsters/horseshoe-crabs-pictures/horseshoe-crab-in-sand IMAGE: Trilobite commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Megalaspides_01.jpg?fastcci_from=204367&c1=204367&c2=3618826&d1=15&d2=0&s=200 IMAGE: Arthropod family Tree evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/arthropods_10 And although horseshoe crabs made it to modern times and trilobites didn’t, they both have ancient beginnings. The oldest known trilobite is ~540 million years old, but the horseshoe crabs weren’t far behind with the earliest example showing up ~445 million years ago. So technically just looking at a horseshoe crab you’re looking back millions of years into the past. SOURCE: www.igme.es/museo/trilo08/archivos/TRILOBITE.pdf (oldest trilobites) SOURCE: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00746.x/full (oldest horseshoe crabs) IMAGE: bird skull etc.usf.edu/clipart/73400/73460/73460_skullfowl.htm IMAGE: reptile skull (Px = premaxilla) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jugal_bone#/media/File:Gegenbaur_1870_skull_homology_color.png IMAGE: Limusaurus commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Limusaurus_runner.jpg Source: b3.ifrm.com/30233/130/0/p3001488/PIIS0960982216312696.pdf IMAGE: Archaeornithura commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Archaeornithura_meemannae_Holotype.jpg MAGE: Archaeopteryx commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Archaeopteryx_fossil.jpg SOURCE: Paleo Art naturalhistory.si.edu/exhibits/backyard-dinosaurs/reconstructing-animals.cfm SOURCE: Digital reconstruction www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5098973/ IMAGE: fossilization www.nature.com/scientificamerican/journal/v23/n2s/box/scientificamericandinosaurs0514-104_BX1.html SOURCE: fossilization www.geo.arizona.edu/geo3xx/geo308/FoldersOnServer/2003/1fossil&taph&ichno.htm SOURCE: Anthropocene environment.harvard.edu/news/faculty-news/human-impact-has-pushed-earth-anthropocene-scientists-say
When Giant Fungi Ruled
When Giant Fungi Ruled
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS 420 million years ago, a giant feasted on the dead, growing slowly into the largest living thing on land. It belonged to an unlikely group of pioneers that ultimately made life on land possible -- the fungi. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Thanks to Franz Anthony of 252mya.com and Jon Hughes of jfhdigital.com for their tremendous reconstructions of Prototaxites. Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.davidmoore.org.uk/21st_Century_Guidebook_to_Fungi_PLATINUM/REPRINT_collection/Hueber_Prototaxites2001.pdf news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/04/070425-fungus-fossil_2.html onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/boj.12389/abstract www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/07/070423.fungus.shtml www.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric-world/devonian/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2880155/ link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-3-662-46011-5_10.pdf www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/devonian/devonian.php blogs.scientificamerican.com/artful-amoeba/the-world-s-largest-mining-operation-is-run-by-fungi/ rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/7/4/574 books.google.com/books?id=gSAufF5IUKoC&pg=PA233&lpg=PA233&dq=prototaxites+1843&source=bl&ots=G_xulZhwpL&sig=NfRL10g81UGZJ-SQxEV8iNCb88E&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjpsYrenq3XAhWL6IMKHd5zBosQ6AEINDAC#v=onepage&q=prototaxites%201843&f=false www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21684921 academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/boj.12389 www.atlasobscura.com/articles/oldest-plant-fossil-found onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2818.1873.tb04672.x/abstract www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/lichens/lichenfr.html science.sciencemag.org/content/293/5532/1129 www.newsweek.com/fossilized-fungi-worlds-oldest-land-fossil-432797 www.bbc.com/earth/story/20151205-one-amazing-substance-allowed-life-to-thrive-on-land onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00397.x/abstract www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3852/13-390?journalCode=umyc20 blogs.scientificamerican.com/artful-amoeba/were-weirdo-ediacarans-really-lichens-fungi-and-slime-molds/ www.nature.com/articles/nature01884 news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_9079000/9079963.stm pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/24/1/55/206443/new-evidence-for-land-plants-from-the-lower-middle?redirectedFrom=fulltext science.psu.edu/news-and-events/2001-news/Hedges8-2001.htm academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article/180/4/452/2416561 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/boj.12389/abstract qz.com/630770/a-scientist-identified-the-oldest-land-fossil-ever-and-realized-it-was-eating-something-even-older/ www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034666713000948 news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/3427499.stm ~419mya horseshoecrab.org/research/sites/default/files/P.Shelden%201990.pdf www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC333434/ pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/30/5/391/192367/first-steps-on-land-arthropod-trackways-in?redirectedFrom=fulltext www.cambridge.org/core/journals/geological-magazine/article/non-marine-arthropod-traces-from-the-subaerial-ordovician-borrowdale-volcanic-group-english-lake-district/A203763DC4AEA05D731966614AB2DE30 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420932 www.researchgate.net/publication/263080406_Rotted_wood-alga-fungus_The_history_and_life_of_Prototaxites_Dawson_1859 www.cambridge.org/core/journals/paleontological-society-special-publications/article/solution-to-the-enigma-of-prototaxites/F153A7007C25269D6C58734E8FF96F18 www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2396361.pdf www.academia.edu/891357/Early_terrestrial_animals_evolution_and_uncertainty www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4094847.pdf
What Happened to the World's Greatest Ape?
What Happened to the World's Greatest Ape?
Year ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Probably twice the size of a modern gorilla, Gigantopithecus is the greatest great-ape that ever was. And for us fellow primates, there are some lessons to be learned in how it lived, and why it disappeared. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Thanks to Julio Lacerda at 252MYA.com and Carlos Eulefi for both of their wonderful reconstructions of Gigantopithecus. Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618215011854?via%3Dihub phys.org/news/2016-01-giant-ape-gigantopithecus-extinct-years.html projects.iq.harvard.edu/files/tanyasmith/files/10.pdf phys.org/news/2012-02-fossil-teeth-gigantopithecus-yunnan-guizhou-plateau.html link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11434-011-4732-4.pdf www.pnas.org/content/87/20/8120.full.pdf www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/article/1975412/king-kong-hong-kong-how-giant-ape-fossil-was-found-1930s onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1525/aa.1957.59.5.02a00080/asset/aa.1957.59.5.02a00080.pdf;jsessionid=F4D016D80B1A28F7FA846DF7BAEDF319.f01t02?v=1&t=j9vmrv8s&s=443299a6a1c787d05e6738a4b2c634e10667316c onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.23150/full www.midway.k-state.edu/livestock/docs/What%20is%20the%20difference%20between%20C3%20plants%20and%20C4%20plants.pdf www.livescience.com/53313-biggest-ape-forest-dweller.html www.thefreelibrary.com/Climate+change+causing+reduction+in+sizes+of+animals+and+plants%3a...-a0269950318 124.16.247.197:8080/bitstream/311034/7491/1/1-s2.0-S0031018216306241-main.pdf lveho.ivpp.ac.cn/kycg/lw/201404/P020140409540808768786.pdf www.academia.edu/download/44121888/Olejniczak_20et_20al._202008_20AJPA.pdf www.academia.edu/235303/Characteristics_of_Pleistocene_megafauna_extinctions_in_Southeast_Asia
The Last Time the Globe Warmed
The Last Time the Globe Warmed
Year ago
Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Imagine an enormous, lush rainforest teeming with life...in the Arctic. Well there was a time -- and not too long ago -- when the world warmed more than any human has ever seen. (So far) Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Special thanks to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his work: spinops.blogspot.com/ Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.colorado.edu/today/2010/08/24/new-study-shows-how-tortoises-alligators-thrived-high-arctic-some-50-million-years-ago advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/3/e1600891.full geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/38/1/15.full?ijkey=Gz6vWfTZzGpv6&keytype=ref&siteid=gsgeology www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X15003994 science.sciencemag.org/content/192/4241/781 www.researchgate.net/publication/245029249_Plant_response_to_a_global_greenhouse_event_56_million_years_ago www.pnas.org/content/105/10/3815.full onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/1999GB001195/abstract www.e-education.psu.edu/earth103/node/639 earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Paleoclimatology_OxygenBalance/ www.palaeontologyonline.com/articles/2011/the-paleocene-eocene-thermal-maximum/ www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v9/n4/abs/ngeo2681.html cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/trends/emis/tre_glob_2014.html cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/ftp/ndp030/global.1751_2014.ems www.sciencealert.com/carbon-emissions-now-higher-than-they-ve-been-since-the-dinosaurs-went-extinct www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v4/n7/full/ngeo1179.html ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/pressrelease/disappearance_of_coral_reefs_drastically_altered_marine_food_web_on_the_hor earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/page3.php www.ei.lehigh.edu/eli/cc/resources/readings/iscurrent.pdf people.earth.yale.edu/paleoceneeocene-thermal-maximum pages.geo.wvu.edu/~kammer/g231/PETM.pdf www.scotese.com/newpage9.htm all-geo.org/highlyallochthonous/2010/01/coal-and-the-fossil-record-of-climate-change-in-the-canadian-high-arctic/ academic.evergreen.edu/z/zita/meetings/Chau07/present/CarbonCycle.pdf naturalhistory.si.edu/ete/ETE_People_Wing_ResearchThemes_Wyoming.html www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948332/ ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/10/hothouse-earth/kunzig-text/1 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921818117300723 www.livescience.com/15597-primate-oldest-fossil-fingernails.html news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/11/1121_021121_PrimateOrigins_2.html electronic-earth.net/3/19/2008/ee-3-19-2008.pdf www.geolsoc.org.uk/Geoscientist/Archive/June-2014/The-Arctic-Azolla-event www.nature.com/articles/ngeo1179.epdf?referrer_access_token=4VJfM12-Bke0u7yNAQrdW9RgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0M9N_6CDYtcTDVJIMWPdxeFMCNsV3K0EIxvtcQpV06fZjTyZ6T7lyyizBoY0zL-CPBpPMJv986FX1njYRF-W4EqSgQKe-_W5T0FLgJSTENZSAmV35S5lMgxuhsef9Pka9vKqPOphclpl-VY46vMc7XzaZ-fGB50Pf9PxuqM28eLeGSconG9lypd3899nbUJc3d-lGFGN4s8I1IHHwdgcNOk&tracking_referrer=www.bbc.com www.whoi.edu/fileserver.do?id=136084&pt=2&p=148709
The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers
The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Over the past 20 years, dinosaurs of all types and sizes have been found with some sort of fluff or even full-on plumage. These fuzzy discoveries have raised a whole batch of new questions so we're here to tell you everything we know about dinosaurs and feathers. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Thanks to Fabrizio De Rossi, Julio Lacerda, Franz Anthony and Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/licensing Thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart. Check out his portfolio: spinops.blogspot.com Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/birds/archaeopteryx.html watermark.silverchair.com/j.1095-8312.1976.tb00244.x.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAfUwggHxBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggHiMIIB3gIBADCCAdcGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMwcgaUHAd0QLZSaixAgEQgIIBqMBuONttH3vzrZjnZ3x6hHOYEWTK0NKIXPaEsJWvtg-gIz2L8KeTlj8bmH3BNA8vDbeBy-cMgAejmIPwXtz3TCAtGsu5I4gGRcDnQuERZUsCy0UKJcS38tIa42C362b83Q9o-GC8gR0peqyTOB6SbuF10DUx8bclg_U_CUehID11YiEsSHKDXqUn8H6yFVYRW9RJ7bdZAEWWCDwYaGy-aBMUbpl2C9mwWyL7TMQzjG-DYDj4J2-h8iXZ7CafvLJ2PH6sKZGSNOxD_KA1xLd9JzbZpiGnQ_ptWeWfVCD3DirVtnnlKQrVJt7htNifbTJCsLcvTThuIU9kmCUzD9SSMYX-wn8el4kXWEMMMTE4VghC97hYc7ePEdu3jT4uity6BFEzqN7BniYNhNsFI9XKQ7Sx_gW70fv-FJo141kUDMzJdiKyK0sXXbZbna7KEqXXo0ZaT62cUBMRiXtWBNLk3K8yHhIcel2SOwTmpL_kTSyA-lXen5H1U9bZkLPc46pVzDo2mjLPRXUie_CljiDBCLCjGKT13Oayrn20rJOousRIzwOPVyTcxnI www.livescience.com/24745-archaeopteryx.html www.nytimes.com/1996/10/19/us/feathery-fossil-hints-dinosaur-bird-link.html Ostrom, J. H. (1969). Osteology of Deinonychus antirrhopus, an unusual theropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana (Vol. 30). Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University. paleoglot.org/files/Ji&Ji_96.pdf www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/341993 english.ivpp.cas.cn/rh/rp/200912/t20091202_48050.html news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/04/120404-yutyrannus-feathers-dinosaur-science-nature-biggest/ www.nature.com/nature/journal/v431/n7009/full/nature02855.html www.nature.com/nature/journal/v484/n7392/full/nature10906.html www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/njbgeol/2010/00000258/00000003/art00001 www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1206/0003-0082(2002)381%3C0001:NSOMZT%3E2.0.CO;2 www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/avians.html science.sciencemag.org/content/299/5605/402.full?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&author1=Dial%252C%20K&searchid=1056403726368_9319&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&fdate=10/1/1995&tdate=6/30/2003 www.livescience.com/57056-could-dinosaurs-fly.html link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00114-002-0339-6 www.miketaylor.org.uk/tmp/papers/gmayr43.pdf www.geol.umd.edu/~tholtz/G331/lectures/331phyloinference.html news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/07/140724-feathered-siberia-dinosaur-scales-science/ www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/07/earliest-dinosaurs-may-have-sported-feathers science.sciencemag.org/content/345/6195/451 www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/t-rex-skin-was-not-covered-feathers-study-says-180963603/ www.theguardian.com/science/lost-worlds/2013/jun/10/dinosaurs-fossils evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/exaptations_01 oro.open.ac.uk/22432/ www.newscientist.com/article/dn26970-stunning-fossils-big-mama-brooding/ www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/e96-046#.WeeoxtenGM8 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17488937 blogs.scientificamerican.com/laelaps/long-live-the-fuzzy-t-rex/ sp.lyellcollection.org/content/343/1/251.short www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14610039 www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327254-100-velociraptors-killing-claws-were-for-climbing/ journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0028964 www.montana.edu/news/10650/dinosaurs-with-killer-claws-yield-new-theory-about-flight www.nature.com/news/2009/090318/full/news.2009.172.html
The Search for the Earliest Life
The Search for the Earliest Life
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS More than 4 billion years ago, the crust of the Earth was still cooling and the oceans were only beginning to form. But in recent years, we’ve started to discover that, even in this hellish environment, life found a way. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/10/scientists-may-have-found-earliest-evidence-life-earth www.latimes.com/science/la-sci-oldest-rocks-20151031-story.html www.pnas.org/content/112/47/14518.full.pdf www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4664322/ www.nature.com/news/oldest-traces-of-life-on-earth-may-lurk-in-canadian-rocks-1.22685 nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature24019 www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v7/n1/full/ngeo2025.html www.researchgate.net/publication/248449490_Isotopic_composition_of_reduced_and_oxidized_carbon_in_early_Archaean_rocks_from_Isua_Greenland www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301926803001037?via%3Dihub www.researchgate.net/profile/Rohana_Chandrajith/publication/223475080_Biogenic_Graphite_as_a_Potential_Geomarker-Application_to_Continental_Reconstructions_of_Pan-African_Gondwana_Terrains/links/581cb8ac08aea429b291f1ab/Biogenic-Graphite-as-a-Potential-Geomarker-Application-to-Continental-Reconstructions-of-Pan-African-Gondwana-Terrains.pdf books.google.com/books?id=2OUFwR3NrpkC&pg=PA40&lpg=PA40&dq=rubisco+%22carbon-12%22&source=bl&ots=AMNNemQLIV&sig=oQJYXozXNbA7ayyA8sduUmnEass&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjc2fvWi9_WAhVL6iYKHXcLBtYQ6AEIVDAI#v=onepage&q=rubisco%20%22carbon-12%22&f=false www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjc2fvWi9_WAhVL6iYKHXcLBtYQFghKMAU&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.werc.usgs.gov%2FfileHandler.ashx%3FFile%3D%2FLists%2FProducts%2FAttachments%2F2841%2FCarbon%252013%2520Carbon%252012%2520Ratios%2520in%2520Photosynthesis.pdf&usg=AOvVaw2yqu2FWl-3PjH_pgmokFRq www.theguardian.com/science/2017/sep/27/carbon-found-in-395bn-year-old-rocks-is-remnants-of-ancient-life-say-researchers www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-10/mu-esl092717.php www.fossilmuseum.net/Tree_of_Life/Stromatolites.htm www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanofr.html nai.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2013/10/Cooler-Early-Earth-Article.pdf
A Brief History of Geologic Time
A Brief History of Geologic Time
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS By looking at the layers beneath our feet, geologists have been able to identify and describe crucial episodes in life’s history. These key events frame the chapters in the story of life on earth and the system we use to bind all these chapters together is the Geologic Time Scale. Thanks to Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/licensing Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/steno.html academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/histgeol/steno/steno.htm www.pnas.org/content/112/47/14518.full.pdf www.stratigraphy.org/ICSchart/ChronostratChart2013-01.pdf www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/25/9/pdf/i1052-5173-25-9-38.pdf www.strata-smith.com/?page_id=279 blogs.scientificamerican.com/history-of-geology/march-30-1759-the-four-layers-of-earth/ earthscienceshistory.org/doi/pdf/10.17704/eshi.31.2.c2q4076006wn7751 www.le.ac.uk/gl/ads/SiberianTraps/AreaVolume.html books.google.com/books?id=rmrGS9s-KewC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false palaeoblog.blogspot.com/2011/10/born-this-day-giovanni-arduino.html www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v6/n1/full/ngeo1649.html?foxtrotcallback=true www.pnas.org/content/95/19/11028.full humanorigins.si.edu/human-characteristics/walking-upright www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/10/scientists-may-have-found-earliest-evidence-life-earth www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130117084856.htm www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vendian/ediacaran.php burgess-shale.rom.on.ca/en/science/origin/04-cambrian-explosion.php science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2002/28jan_extinction www.planetary.org/blogs/jason-davis/2017/20170612-falklands-impact-crater.html www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/1/l_031_01.html www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080521131541.htm www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-beguiling-history-of-bees-excerpt/ www.scientificamerican.com/article/asteroid-killed-dinosaurs/ www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/tertiary/eocene.php pubs.geoscienceworld.org/geology/article-abstract/36/3/251/29681/cooling-and-ice-growth-across-the-eocene-oligocene?redirectedFrom=fulltext www.geol.umd.edu/~tholtz/G204/lectures/204grass.html www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/sahelanthropus-tchadensis-ten-years-after-the-disocvery-2449553/ www.livescience.com/40311-pleistocene-epoch.html www.pnas.org/content/106/49/20641.full evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/history_04 www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/steno.html Steno, N. (1916). 1669: De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis prodromus. Florence, 78p. Hancock, Paul L; Skinner, Brian J, Oxford Companion to the Earth, Oxford University Press, 2000 www.nature.com/news/anthropocene-the-human-age-1.17085 Addition to image credits: some footage from this episode is from VideoBlocks.com
An Illustrated History of Dinosaurs
An Illustrated History of Dinosaurs
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Our image of dinosaurs has been constantly changing since naturalists started studying them about 350 years ago. Taken together, these pictures can tell us a whole lot about just how much we have learned. Let's explore the history of dinosaur science as seen through the history of dinosaur art. Special thanks to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their work in this video: Greg Paul: gspauldino.com/ Doug Henderson: douglashendersonehi.com/ Gabriel Ugueto: gabrielugueto.com/, instagram.com/serpenillus/ Nobumichi Tamura: spinops.blogspot.com/ Emily Willoughby: emilywilloughby.com/ Thanks to Nathan E. Rogers, Julio Lacerda, Franz Anthony and Studio 252mya for their illustrations as well. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/licensing Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/the-country-of-the-iguanodon/hgEDub8UWD1Zrg?hl=en www.oum.ox.ac.uk/learning/pdfs/plot.pdf archive.org/details/naturalhistoryof00plot archive.org/details/newaccuratesyste02broo blog.biodiversitylibrary.org/2015/10/the-first-described-and-validly-named.html www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36238855#page/486/mode/1up books.google.com/books?id=dy5LAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA60&hl=en#v=onepage&q=dinosauria&f=false cpdinosaurs.org/history-crystal-palace-dinosaurs Owen, R., & Hawkins, B. W. (1854). Geology and Inhabitants of the ancient World (Vol. 8). Crystal Palace Library. Leidy, J. (1858). Hadrosaurus foulkii, a new saurian from the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 10, 215-218. Cope, E. D. (1866). Discovery of a gigantic dinosaur in the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 18, 275-279. Marsh, O. C. (1877). Notice of a new and gigantic dinosaur, Titanosaurus. American Journal of Science, (79), 87-88. books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=2kIsAAAAYAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA209&dq=+O.C.+Marsh+1877+Dryptosaurus&ots=5HcZ-5WMkg&sig=dA-nNwYIKLxvM9TsUe_f5bOMSXs#v=onepage&q=Titanosaurus&f=false3en www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-dryptosaurus-got-its-name-68864150/ www.euppublishing.com/doi/abs/10.3366/anh.1987.14.1.59?journalCode=anh www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-brontosaurus-is-back1/ Marsh, O. C. (1879). Notice of new Jurassic reptiles. American Journal of Science, (108), 501-505. Hatcher, J. B., Osborn, H. F., & Marsh, O. C. (1907). The ceratopsia (Vol. 49). US Government Printing Office. Marsh, O. C. (1877). A new order of extinct Reptilia (Stegosauria) from the Jurassic of the Rocky Mountains. American Journal of Science, (84), 513-514. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10658785#page/7/mode/1up tuda.triumf.ca/evolution/articles/scientificamerican0475-58.pdf fivethirtyeight.com/features/all-those-new-dinosaurs-may-not-be-new-or-dinosaurs/ www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/new--tech-ancient-fossils-180951647/ phys.org/news/2014-11-modern-technology-ancient-dinosaur-fossil.html www.ohio.edu/research/communications/witmer.cfm www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4512775/
When Whales Walked
When Whales Walked
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS We know whales as graceful giants bound to the sea. But what if we told you there was actually a time when whales could walk. Signup for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: ow.ly/x0Hi30egd4K Thanks to Lucas Lima and Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of Lucas' work here: 252mya.com/gallery/lucas-lima Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US market. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: web.neomed.edu/web/anatomy/Thewissen/whale_origins/index.html www.researchgate.net/publication/255721304_Ambulocetus_natans_an_Eocene_Cetacean_Mammalia_from_Pakistan link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12052-009-0135-2 www.amnh.org/explore/news-blogs/news-posts/a-walking-whale-ambulocetus/ www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/a/ambulocetus.html evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_03 stories.anmm.gov.au/whale-evolution/ www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/take-deep-dive-reasons-land-animals-moved-seas-180955007/ repository.ias.ac.in/4642/1/316.pdf link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4899-0159-0_14 www.britannica.com/science/Eocene-Epoch ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2010/08/whale-evolution/mueller-text/4 www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/ocean-giants-going-aquatic-cetacean-evolution/7577/ www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/05/why-did-the-biggest-whales-get-so-big/527874/ usa-video.net/QLNn7tZJfNY-video.html www.pnas.org/content/96/18/10261.short www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090318153803.htm www.nature.com/news/2007/071218/full/news.2007.388.html books.google.com/books?id=udCnKce9hfoC&pg=PA391&lpg=PA391&dq=astragalus+bone+artiodactyla&source=bl&ots=vN2lvOVMWi&sig=xlwWl2JECUvYPl3aofimxAjwVrw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjGsNG0zvDVAhUUUWMKHTbAACcQ6AEImwEwFw#v=onepage&q=astragalus%20bone%20artiodactyla&f=false www.blc.arizona.edu/courses/schaffer/449/god%20in%20the%20gaps/early%20whale%20hands%20and%20feet.pdf phys.org/news/2005-01-scientists-link-whale-closest-relative.html www.pnas.org/content/96/18/10261.short link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12052-009-0135-2
'Living Fossils' Aren't Really a Thing
'Living Fossils' Aren't Really a Thing
2 years ago
Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Crocodiles, horseshoe crabs and tuatara are animals that have persisted for millions of years, said to have gone unchanged since the days of the dinosaurs. But even the most ancient-looking organisms show us that evolution is always at work. Special thanks to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his paleoart. Check out his portfolio here: spinops.blogspot.com Thanks to Nathan E. Rogers and Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/gallery/nathan-e-rogers Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.nature.com/news/oldest-homo-sapiens-fossil-claim-rewrites-our-species-history-1.22114 www.nature.com/nature/journal/v546/n7657/full/nature22336.html www.nature.com/news/2008/080327/full/news.2008.695.html www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168952508000036?via%3Dihub www.cell.com/trends/genetics/fulltext/S0168-9525(08)00003-6?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0168952508000036%3Fshowall%3Dtrue www.jstor.org/stable/2396218?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents sp.lyellcollection.org/content/379/1/525.short journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0044985 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01373.x/full genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415
When The Earth Was Purple
When The Earth Was Purple
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Besides the blue of the oceans, the dominant color of our planet, as we know it, is green. But imagine a time when the Earth looked a little … purple. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.livescience.com/1398-early-earth-purple-study-suggests.html www.jstor.org/stable/27858961 www.amnh.org/explore/science-bulletins/earth/documentaries/the-rise-of-oxygen/article-earth-without-oxygen/ origins.asu.edu/blog/oxygenation-catastrophe www.scientificamerican.com/article/archaebacteria-the-third/ www.asm.org/ccLibraryFiles/FILENAME/000000002127/znw00306000120.pdf science.jrank.org/pages/5195/Photosynthesis-Halobacterium.html
How Did Dinosaurs Get So Huge?
How Did Dinosaurs Get So Huge?
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Part of why we’re so fascinated with extinct dinosaurs it’s just hard for us to believe that animals that huge actually existed. And yet, they existed! From the Jurassic to the Cretaceous Periods, creatures as tall as a five-story building were shaking the Earth. Thanks to Nathan E. Rogers, Julio Lacerda, Franz Anthony and Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/licensing Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/massive-titanosaur-biggest-dinosaur-ever-found-squeezes-into-museum-of-natural-history/ www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160201-meet-the-most-massive-dinosaur-to-ever-stomp-the-earth phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/01/21/how-paleontologists-uncovered-the-worlds-biggest-rhino/ phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/07/14/the-largest-beasts-to-walk-the-earth/ www.google.com/url?q=www.researchgate.net/publication/51920950_Reproductive_Biology_and_Its_Impact_on_Body_Size_Comparative_Analysis_of_Mammalian_Avian_and_Dinosaurian_Reproduction&sa=D&ust=1500399844630000&usg=AFQjCNGTT_rSvT7liO9z1Pp6D5VCDsXKyw www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1666/0094-8373(2003)029%3C0243:VPASAT%3E2.0.CO;2 www.edb.utexas.edu/petrosino/Legacy_Cycle/mf_jm/Challenge3/Avian%20Respiration.pdf svpow.com/papers-by-sv-powsketeers/wedel-2009-on-air-sacs/ www.researchgate.net/publication/51920950_Reproductive_Biology_and_Its_Impact_on_Body_Size_Comparative_Analysis_of_Mammalian_Avian_and_Dinosaurian_Reproduction www.nature.com/news/dinosaur-family-tree-poised-for-colossal-shake-up-1.21681
History's Most Powerful Plants
History's Most Powerful Plants
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Fossil fuels are made from the remains of extinct organisms that have been exposed to millions of years of heat and pressure. But in the case of coal, these organisms consisted largely of some downright bizarre plants that once covered the Earth, from Colorado to China. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.devoniantimes.org/who/pages/lycopsid.html www.europeana.eu/portal/en/record/9200447/BibliographicResource_3000095543293.html Taylor, Edith L; Krings, Michael; Taylor, Thomas N, Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, Academic Press, 2nd Ed, 2008 science.jrank.org/pages/1531/Club-Mosses.html palaeos.com/plants/lycopodiophyta/lepidodendrales.html feedthedatamonster.com/home/2014/7/11/how-fungi-saved-the-world palaeos.com/plants/lycopodiophyta/lepidodendrales.html sites.google.com/site/paleoplant/home-1/embryophytes/polysporangiophytes/rhyniophytes/eutracheophyte/lycophytes/club-mosses/lepidodendrales www.researchgate.net/profile/Jonathan_Wilson13/publication/309439742_Climate_pCO2_and_terrestrial_carbon_cycle_linkages_during_late_Palaeozoic_glacial-interglacial_cycles/links/5811fa2508ae9b32b0a37ac2.pdf onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1755-6724.13061/full www.researchgate.net/profile/William_Dimichele/publication/284104574_Arborescent_lycopsid_productivity_and_lifespan_Constraining_the_possibilities/links/571e604108aed056fa226d68/Arborescent-lycopsid-productivity-and-lifespan-Constraining-the-possibilities.pdf www.geologyatsheffield.co.uk/sagt/morphology/ books.google.com/books?id=wbZGAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119&dq=lepidodendron+fast+growing&source=bl&ots=3gdQ9ChJ3P&sig=8Zio7mUdoBqj7tHbY8m3ulzis_s&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiy1YmA0pTVAhXr6oMKHdrvAEMQ6AEILTAB#v=onepage&q=lepidodendron%20fast%20growing&f=false phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2016/01/07/the-fantastically-strange-origin-of-most-coal-on-earth/ repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/7416/paleo_2005_DiMichele_et_al_PCAS_56%28Suppl_I%29_HR.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y www.ameghiniana.org.ar/index.php/ameghiniana/article/view/1583 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1755-6724.13061/full www.researchgate.net/profile/S_Naugolnykh/publication/261171288_Fossil_flora_from_the_Aleksandrovskoe_locality_Lower_Permian_Kungurian_Krasnoufimsk_district_of_the_Sverdlovsk_Region_Taxonomical_composition_taphonomy_and_a_new_lycopsid_representative/links/0a85e5335cb34e4b6f000000.pdf
The Age of Giant Insects
The Age of Giant Insects
2 years ago
Signup for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: ow.ly/PeiY30egcZN Insects outnumber humans by a lot and we only like to think we're in charge because we're bigger than they are. But insects and other arthropods weren’t always so small. About 315 million years ago during the Carboniferous Period, they were not only abundant: they were enormous. The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US market. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. Thanks to Lucas Lima, and Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of Lucas's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/lucas-lima Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/08/110808-ancient-insects-bugs-giants-oxygen-animals-science/ journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022610 www.wired.com/2010/11/huge-dragonflies-oxygen/ rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1690/1937.short bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu/bionumber.aspx?id=113319 news.ucsc.edu/2012/06/giant-insects.html www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/buginfo/bugnos.htm www.pnas.org/content/96/20/10955.full www.nap.edu/read/11630/chapter/8#117
The Strange Case of the Buzzsaw Jaws
The Strange Case of the Buzzsaw Jaws
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS There are many fossils that challenge our ability to form even the most basic idea of how a living thing looked, or lived, or functioned. One of the longest-running of these mysteries involved a 270-million-year-old sea creature called Helicoprion that once swam the seas around the supercontinent of Pangea. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: www.academia.edu/28463128/ART_IN_PALEONTOLOGY_THE_RECONSTRUCTION_OF_EXTINCT_ANIMALS paleobiology.si.edu/helicoprion/ rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/9/2/20130057 blogs.scientificamerican.com/running-ponies/prehistoric-ghost-shark-helicoprions-spiral-toothed-jaw-explained/ www.researchgate.net/publication/249440368_A_new_specimen_of_Helicoprion_Karpinsky_1899_from_Kazakhstanian_Cisurals_and_a_new_reconstruction_of_its_tooth_whorl_position_and_function jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/87/6/965 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmor.20319/full
The Extinction That Never Happened
The Extinction That Never Happened
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Natural history is full of living things that were long thought to have gone extinct only to show up again, alive and well. Paleontologists have a word for these kinds of organisms: They call them Lazarus taxa. Go to squarespace.com/eons and use code “EONS” for 10% off your first order. Special thanks to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his paleoart. Check out his portfolio here: spinops.blogspot.com Thanks to Andrey Atuchin, Lucas Lima, Franz Anthony and Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: Andrey Atuchin: facebook.com/AndreyAtuchinStudio/ Lucas Lima: 252mya.com/gallery/lucas-lima Franz Anthony: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/
Dimetrodon: Our Most Unlikely Ancestor
Dimetrodon: Our Most Unlikely Ancestor
2 years ago
Check out The Great Courses Plus! ow.ly/iBxG30egcx9 With its lizard-like appearance and that distinctive sail on it back, Dimetrodon is practically the mascot of the Palaeozoic Era, a time before flowers, birds, mammals, and even crocodiles. But if you take a close look at this sail-backed animal, you might see a little bit of yourself. The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US market. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. Thanks to Franz Anthony and Studio 252mya for the Dimetrodon illustration. You can find more of Franz's work here: 252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: evolution-outreach.springeropen.com/articles/10.1007/s12052-009-0117-4 www.app.pan.pl/article/item/app20100039.html www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10420940.2014.933070?journalCode=gich20 www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/653001 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmor.10876/abstract
The Biggest Thing That Ever Flew
The Biggest Thing That Ever Flew
2 years ago
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Today, we’re familiar with two types of flying vertebrates -- birds and bats. But over 66 million years ago, there was a giraffe-sized reptile that soared through the sky. Try CuriosityStream today: curiositystream.com/eons Thanks to Fabrizio De Rossi, Julio Lacerda, and Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/licensing Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: usa-video.net/u/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - instagram.com/eonsshow/
____________
____________ - 23 minutes ago
Can you imagine Humans surviving that long? The uncountable permutations that would exist...
The Raging Retard
The Raging Retard - Hour ago
TIHI
science world
science world - Hour ago
Sir this is very knowledgeable video about sex education
your wrong
your wrong - Hour ago
LIAR !
pizzahands
pizzahands - Hour ago
The cringiest comment section on youtube
hawktalon
hawktalon - Hour ago
Sooooooo, we're like rabbits?
caillustration
caillustration - 2 hours ago
Why do people like you use the word fodder so much. Do you also "geek out" about beer?
Frederic Chopin
Frederic Chopin - 2 hours ago
Kaprosuchus ark lol
z NightOwl z
z NightOwl z - 2 hours ago
Lmao it’s been 11 months and I’m still finding comments in this video claiming megalodon still lives
Growing Your Own Way
Growing Your Own Way - 2 hours ago
No wonder our ancestors during that time were mostly arboreal, I wouldn't get down with those things walking around... 🤣😂
Ryan Johnston
Ryan Johnston - 3 hours ago
Do you have Neanderthal in your genes? Want some?
Brian Scholla
Brian Scholla - 3 hours ago
Damn she pretty
doos
doos - 3 hours ago
Megalodon is definitely extinct, however don't get sad. There is still a very high possibility of sea giants yet to be discovered in the ~95% of our sea that we haven't explored. Perhaps another huge shark. Perhaps something bigger and scarier, that we shouldn't mess with.
Maarten Boneschansker
Maarten Boneschansker - 3 hours ago
usa-video.net/RDQa0okkpf0-video.html it was O2 that caused forests to grow? Shouldn't that be CO2? and these forests then producing the high O2 levels?
KJ Ron
KJ Ron - 3 hours ago
i wonder if you genes allow us to just constantly mix, is there a limit to this before it just breaks down? Maybe that will be humankinds extinction
Bert Jongerden
Bert Jongerden - 3 hours ago
Dammit vulcanoes you did it again!
Bill Gene Soon
Bill Gene Soon - 3 hours ago
*Pauses Vidya before 1 minute mark* "I KNOW WHAT IT IS ITS ANCIENT QUICKSAND!!!!"
Reverse Universe
Reverse Universe - 3 hours ago
Confusión with DNA imagine all the innocent humans found guilty when innocent and locked up 😐
Eric S
Eric S - 3 hours ago
Wait.. there was climate change?
Daniel Tangkilisan
Daniel Tangkilisan - 3 hours ago
They still live on the mountain of Muria in the regencies of Jepara, Kudus and Pati in the province of Central Java and also in the jungles of Sumatra. In Aceh, Sumatra, they are called Orang Mante. usa-video.net/qzbIcprhW1I-video.html
Robert Iturriaga
Robert Iturriaga - 3 hours ago
I always wondered if this can be true with space if we took tiny steps going further and further up for a very long period of time.
Pablo Sirius EscoBARZ
Pablo Sirius EscoBARZ - 3 hours ago
8:40 lizard people r resistant to disease. Illuminati confirmed 🤔
Luis Prieto
Luis Prieto - 4 hours ago
Horrible shows the same picture over n over again throughout the whole thing
M S
M S - 4 hours ago
its NOT weather, IT IS CLIMATE CHANGE
Austin Gragg
Austin Gragg - 4 hours ago
The stories of the Cherokee have a UKTENA which kinda looks like an Asian dragon and is in the water
sal 6942013 and all other cool numbers
sal 6942013 and all other cool numbers - 4 hours ago
I knew it Spongbob is the strongest anime character ever.
Brendan Mullen
Brendan Mullen - 4 hours ago
why did you guys use the TedED intro sound hahaha
Sara Brothern
Sara Brothern - 5 hours ago
I’m glad this host finally stopped talking at the speed of an auctioneer.
To the Face
To the Face - 5 hours ago
Enormous hamsters? You mean bears?
Lucas Johnson
Lucas Johnson - 5 hours ago
Scientist#1: Hey, we just discovered a new ancient species that died off millions of years ago! Scientist#2: Fascinating! What do you suppose caused it to die off? Scientist#1: I dunno... but I need to propose something... Scientist#2: Hmmm... Maybe... Both: Climate Change! Yes! Scientist#1: Excellent! The vaguest, most unprovable, most politically correct default explanation for all of life's problems! No one will dare challenge it, especially since it happened millions of years ago! Scientist#2: Brilliant! Now we can create a vague theory with virtually no evidence or research beyond subtle supposition to support it! All while padding our own credibility with the groupthink party of modern scientific consensus! Uncork the champagne! This calls for a toast!
Laurie Penner
Laurie Penner - 5 hours ago
Los Angeles is the worst place I've ever been. But it's ALMOST saved by having the ultra-metal La Brea Tar Pits smack in the middle of it.
Laurie Penner
Laurie Penner - 5 hours ago
Cats rule, dogs drool
Jungleland33
Jungleland33 - 5 hours ago
Maybe it's we're small.
Dʏɴᴀꜱᴛʏ X
Dʏɴᴀꜱᴛʏ X - 6 hours ago
Are you feeling it now Mr Krabs
Bitchslapper316
Bitchslapper316 - 6 hours ago
The pictures made them seem frightening but then I remember that animals like hyenas, lions human warlords "roam africa" today.
Thegeorgien 78
Thegeorgien 78 - 6 hours ago
Inostrancevia ? Homotherium ? Barbourofelis ?
yugiohplayer 325
yugiohplayer 325 - 6 hours ago
Subscribed.
Gotzer Drake Zerora Venandi
Gotzer Drake Zerora Venandi - 6 hours ago
Pretty sure this thing are alive but ok
Muditha Jayangani Kottahachchi
Muditha Jayangani Kottahachchi - 6 hours ago
No wait horse s early body was a unicorn
Muditha Jayangani Kottahachchi
Muditha Jayangani Kottahachchi - 6 hours ago
Really
Simon Duvall
Simon Duvall - 6 hours ago
What if humans were always around in sound way, but lacked the intelligence to compete with predators like these, and for whatever reason, competition failed allowing humans to live and expand.
aaron Shinkle
aaron Shinkle - 6 hours ago
I haven’t watched the video but please tell me we rode them.
sivloc93 netsiv93
sivloc93 netsiv93 - 6 hours ago
I love when i recognize where my youtube rabit hole will start...here we go
Muditha Jayangani Kottahachchi
Muditha Jayangani Kottahachchi - 6 hours ago
How did the T. rex formed
FreedMan76
FreedMan76 - 6 hours ago
Hypercarnivore is redundant and stupid.
rtyable
rtyable - 6 hours ago
Great video. Very well explained. But It’s 4:01 am and I have work later, why am I still on here?
BD Wednesday
BD Wednesday - 6 hours ago
Seeing a Simbakubwa attack a fully grown elephant would have been a terrible sight.
Daniel Olsson
Daniel Olsson - 7 hours ago
Considering that all previous species of /HomonidsHumans could tame fire, I don't buy the whole idea that the the Sentineles people living on North Sentinel Island are unable to tame fire that most youtube video concerning them seem to indecate That they must wait for lightning to strike so they can enjoy a warm meal sound silly to me. As they are amongst the last uncontacted people to remain untouched by modern civilization and their violent, almost xenophobic way of rejecting any contact with the outside world, we know almost nothing about them at all. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Sentinel_Island
Mike Harrington
Mike Harrington - 7 hours ago
Being so large & having such well equipped teeth, along with being slow witted & slow moving, suggests to me that they were not apex predators, but instead were giant scavengers, & that their lack of hunting effectiveness led to their demise as their food source either moved away or shrank away. I suggest that they were like the Komodo Dragons of their era but the smaller, faster & more intelligent predators survived instead because they were able to evolve & adapt to a changing habitat.
Fernando Flores
Fernando Flores - 8 hours ago
How did it arrive to America if it came from south America in the first place? It would make more sense to use north America instead of just America.
Richard Richardson
Richard Richardson - 9 hours ago
Ray J gave Kim k love and now showing us love sponsoring our education
Firstname Lastname
Firstname Lastname - 9 hours ago
Some believe that life here Had begun out there
altareggo
altareggo - 9 hours ago
D*** Nature.. you scary!!!
Tee Latona
Tee Latona - 9 hours ago
Could this have been a trap that Zodeolestis built to catch beavers?
savingprvtryan
savingprvtryan - 9 hours ago
Yea but extinction and climate change are caused by humans right
Collins Milgo
Collins Milgo - 9 hours ago
I speak Swahili, and the way you said the name of the lion from Africa in swahili made me die in laughter😂😂😂
50 Shades of Geek
50 Shades of Geek - 10 hours ago
Somewhere along the way a mistake happened in the firm of Sid the sloth.
James Boaz
James Boaz - 10 hours ago
How terrifying would it be to run into one of these? And our little ancestors we're running around with them.
James Boaz
James Boaz - 10 hours ago
We only walk like this because of shoe's. Go for a walk in the woods barefoot.
Green Goblin from cory in the house
Green Goblin from cory in the house - 10 hours ago
Simple,porn sold sex.
ad cd
ad cd - 10 hours ago
There's Najash Oh, that's my cousin!!!
A XS
A XS - 10 hours ago
Joe “the Irish elk” Rogan
Wilhelm Dietz
Wilhelm Dietz - 10 hours ago
I like this girl, she's cute. You should let her do all the videos.
Fray Jay
Fray Jay - 11 hours ago
Still doesn explain why intelligence only evolved in one species
Bryan Becker
Bryan Becker - 11 hours ago
WARGS!
I'm Charming
I'm Charming - 11 hours ago
Ah yes the nopeasaurus
KAALA JAADU
KAALA JAADU - 11 hours ago
Pls clone it
Brad Dibble
Brad Dibble - 11 hours ago
Interesting thank you
Annalisa Steinnes
Annalisa Steinnes - 11 hours ago
I always wonder why some scientists (actually, researchers in general) want to attribute changes to one major cause, rather than considering that a combination of events and situations lead to a particular effect, in this case, the extinction of the hyenadonts. But maybe I misconstrued the information.
Aspie With Attitude
Aspie With Attitude - 11 hours ago
If the Mediterranean became like the Himalayas, the tallest peak in that range should be called Mount Caesar.
Leo is in The house
Leo is in The house - 12 hours ago
I think we need this tree back start planting 😝
M. D ́avis
M. D ́avis - 12 hours ago
Idk but somewho this is typical for Germany. Like oh you got a beautiful place to excavate fossils? Well nope we just gonna dump our waste her.... 🤦‍♂️
Eric Lin
Eric Lin - 12 hours ago
"It turns out that becoming the biggest, baddest beast on the landscape can have serious consequences when that landscape suddenly changes" American financial conglomerates: Hold our champagne
Tom D
Tom D - 13 hours ago
"invisible clouds of toxic gas that asphyxiate anything in their path" or what happens when I eat Mexican food.
Alex Castañeda
Alex Castañeda - 13 hours ago
Me podrías explicar de dónde apareció el agua sobré el planeta tierra, cómo se formaron los oceános, los lagos, los ríos de agua dulce. Cómo se formó el agua o de dónde provino y hace cuánto tiempo?
LadyJAtheist
LadyJAtheist - 13 hours ago
vive la revolucion!
Alex Castañeda
Alex Castañeda - 13 hours ago
Por qué el vírus herpes no se puede erradicar del cuerpo con antivírales, y el sida si se puede tratar con la vacuna recien descubierta en los USA
Miroslav Averchenko
Miroslav Averchenko - 13 hours ago
How do you call a pub owner in Elvish? Eldelbar ... I guess it doesn't work in English... Ok, I'll help myself out.
lckgilmo43
lckgilmo43 - 14 hours ago
Ancestors to the Russian bore. They have long legs and can easily out run you. Better pray that you can climb a nearby tree before one gets you. Be thankful that some animals don't exist anymore. There were fossils of giant rats the size of a horse on some island somewhere. They cannibalized each other because they ate everything on the island including all vegetation. Scientist said that we're lucky that they didn't make it to mainland. If they did most animals would've been eaten. A Bengal tiger wouldn't be able to defend it self because those rats were larger, greater in number and more fierce.
Indomitus Fishing
Indomitus Fishing - 14 hours ago
Not to get off topic but I just watched a video on the prehistoric ancestors of pigs. Those monster Entelodonts! And this video to find out that hyena's brute ancestor is almost the size of a polar bear. WHOA!! I'm sure they set the tone on who's who in the pecking order back in their day!! Amazing.......!!
MarceloCangussu
MarceloCangussu - 14 hours ago
Bottom line is: We are all flour from the same bag!
sarika love
sarika love - 14 hours ago
I like discovering new extinct animals.
RAGE
RAGE - 14 hours ago
Esperitheornis meaning incubator in Latin
rachel fish
rachel fish - 14 hours ago
Domestic cats are responsible for billions of wild animal deaths a year. Keep your little tiger inside!
MT Debris
MT Debris - 14 hours ago
It's so weird that humanity isn't even close to having been around for a million years.
The Wall
The Wall - 14 hours ago
Global warming will happen no matter how many cows we get rid of because the sun is getting warmer and no solar panels will change that.
Your Biggest Fan
Your Biggest Fan - 14 hours ago
Hyaenodont? More like a Hyaeno-don't
Conspicuous Venture
Conspicuous Venture - 14 hours ago
Boooooring more picturessszzzzzz
ForestofTooMuchFood
ForestofTooMuchFood - 14 hours ago
A giant ferret???
ForestofTooMuchFood
ForestofTooMuchFood - 14 hours ago
Take a bite out of your prey and let it bleed out if it has scissor teeth.
george gladd
george gladd - 15 hours ago
Can African wild cat and modern house cat still have fertile off springs
pippo spano
pippo spano - 15 hours ago
Mexico
Cisco4kid1990
Cisco4kid1990 - 15 hours ago
Evolution sometime is stupid with all the different types of dogs we have in the world there is no way all of the dogs came from Caninae aka the wolf dog some like the smaller dogs could have came from the Hesprocyoninae or at least the Archaeocyon and other dogs like the stronger dogs with shorter hair and stronger jaw most likely come from Borophaginae or a sub species the thing about science and evolution is they are all based on theories nobody can say forsure that all these different species and types of dogs we have all around the world don't have different genetics rather than just the wolf gene aka Caninae the pitbull alone has a different gene and you can look that up so who's to say it isn't apart of a mix bread from the Borophaginae and the Caninae same with the smaller dogs that rather dig for food than chase their food like Chihuahuas or Terriers its easy look at the Husky Pitbull Terrier Chihuahua no way do they all come from the same ancestral dog
B&M Suck At Geometry Dash
B&M Suck At Geometry Dash - 15 hours ago
What if it was just preggernant when it died and the baby bones exploded or smth
Melthornal
Melthornal - 15 hours ago
im a giant hypercarnivore.
Mikee 1234444
Mikee 1234444 - 15 hours ago
7:53 what happened to the boarder of North Carolina and Tennessee?
Curas1
Curas1 - 15 hours ago
1:34 ...there form is perfect. ... looks at left picture... BAWAHAHAHA...(look close)
VEEJAYBAGO RAGEGAMER
VEEJAYBAGO RAGEGAMER - 15 hours ago
What if the larger the dinosaur is warm blooded and the smaller dinosaur was cold blooded
SeventhSamurai72
SeventhSamurai72 - 15 hours ago
Love the host. Great voice for narration and really entertaining. I learn and I'm entertained - how education should be.
N Neichan
N Neichan - 16 hours ago
What if the Hyaenodont was a solitary hunter that lost out to smaller pack hunters? Yes! You did bring it up! Great channel!